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1.
大量实验数据和OTL作图结果表明:控制数量性状的基因中既有遗传效应较大的主基因,又有遗传效应较小的多基因,其分离世代表现出多峰性,即出现多个分布混合的特征。本文利用混合模型理论的AIC信息准则在F_2世代中鉴定影响数量性状的主基因的存在,当主基因存在时通过分离分析估计主基因的遗传效应以及主基因的遗传变异占总变异的分量;同时还提出利用P_1、P_2、F_2和F_2 4个世代鉴定多基因存在的方法。以大豆开花期性状为例说明了该方法的应用,在所分析的骨绿豆×上海红芒早杂交组合的F_2世代数据中发现有主基因的存在,主基因表现出完全显性(晚开花),并且有多基因存在。  相似文献
2.
Plant metabolomics: large-scale phytochemistry in the functional genomics era   总被引:52,自引:0,他引:52  
Metabolomics or the large-scale phytochemical analysis of plants is reviewed in relation to functional genomics and systems biology. A historical account of the introduction and evolution of metabolite profiling into today's modern comprehensive metabolomics approach is provided. Many of the technologies used in metabolomics, including optical spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry are surveyed. The critical role of bioinformatics and various methods of data visualization are summarized and the future role of metabolomics in plant science assessed.  相似文献
3.
Hepatic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.   总被引:49,自引:0,他引:49  
Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells can replicate indefinitely in culture and can give rise to all tissues, including the germline, when reimplanted into a murine blastocyst. ES cells can also be differentiated in vitro into a wide range of cell types. We have utilized a liver-specific marker to demonstrate that murine ES cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. We have used ES cells carrying a gene trap vector insertion (I.114) into an ankyrin repeat-containing gene (Gtar) that we have previously shown provides an exclusive beta-galactosidase marker for the early differentiation of hepatocytes in vivo. beta-Galactosidase-positive cells were differentiated from I.114 ES cells in vitro. The identity of these cells was confirmed by the expression of the proteins alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, and transferrin and by the fact that they have an ultrastructural appearance consistent with that of embryonic hepatocytes. We propose that this model system of hepatic differentiation in vitro could be used to define factors that are involved in specification of the hepatocyte lineage. In addition, human ES cells have recently been derived and it has been proposed that they may provide a source of differentiated cell types for cell replacement therapies in the treatment of a variety of diseases.  相似文献
4.
Identification and estimation of a QTL model and its effects   总被引:46,自引:0,他引:46  
 A joint segregation analysis of a genetic system and the effects of QTLs based on the six populations P1, F1, P2, B1, B2 and F2 is proposed in this paper. The major steps were as follows. Firstly, under the supposition that the segregating population was composed of component distributions controlled by a major gene(s) and modified by both polygenes and environments, four groups and 17 types of genetic models, including a one major-gene model, a two major-gene model, a polygene model, and a mixed one-major gene and polygene model, were set up. Secondly, the joint maximum-likelihood function was constructed from the six generations so as to estimate the parameters of component distributions through an EM algorithm. Thirdly, the best-fitting genetic model was chosen according to Akaike’s information criterion, a likelihood-ratio test, and tests for goodness of fit. Fourthly, the related genetic parameters, including gene effects, as well as the genetic variances of major genes and polygenes, were obtained from the estimates of component distributions. Finally, the individuals in segregating populations were classified into their major-gene genotypes according to their posterior probabilities. An example of the genetic analysis of plant height of a rice cross between Nanjing No. 6 and Guangcong was used to illustrate the above procedure. The method was especially appropriate to those crops with easy to obtain hybrid seeds. Received: 11 February 1998 / Accepted: 28 May 1998  相似文献
5.
Toxoplasma gondii and mucosal immunity   总被引:34,自引:0,他引:34  
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite infects the host through the oral route. Infection induces a cascade of immunological events that involve both the components of the innate and adaptative immune responses. Alteration of the homeostatic balance of infected intestine results in an acute inflammatory ileitis in certain strains of inbred mice. Both the infected enterocytes as well as the CD4 T cells from the lamina propria produce chemokines and cytokines that are necessary to clear the parasite whereas CD8 intraepithelial lymphocytes secrete transforming growth factor beta that reduces the inflammation. In this review, we describe the salient features of this complex network of interactions among the different components of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue cell population that are induced after oral infection with T. gondii.  相似文献
6.
The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of adenoviral gene transfer into primary human bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells in combination with biodegradeable scaffolds to tissue-engineer bone. Osteoprogenitors were infected with AxCAOBMP-2, a vector carrying the human BMP-2 gene. Alkaline phosphatase activity was induced in C2C12 cells following culture with conditioned media from BMP-2 expressing cells, confirming successful secretion of active BMP-2. Expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, type I collagen and mineralisation confirmed bone cell differentiation and maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype in extended culture for up to 6 weeks on PLGA porous scaffolds. In vivo implantation of adenoviral osteoprogenitor constructs on PLGA biodegradeable scaffolds, using diffusion chambers, also demonstrated bone cell differentiation and production of bone tissue. The maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype in extended culture and generation of mineralised 3-D scaffolds containing such constructs indicate the potential of such bone tissue engineering approaches in bone repair.  相似文献
7.
Stress or heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous and highly conserved proteins whose expression is induced in response to a wide variety of physiological and environmental insults. They allow the cells to survive to otherwise lethal conditions. Various mechanisms have been proposed to account for the cytoprotective functions of HSPs. These proteins play an essential role in intracellular "house-keeping" by assisting the correct folding of nascent and stress-accumulated misfolded proteins and preventing their aggregation. Several HSPs have also demonstrated to directly interact with various components of the tightly regulated programmed cell death machinery, upstream, and downstream of the mitochondrial events. Finally, HSPs could play a role in the proteasome-mediated degradation of selected proteins under stress conditions. Altogether, these properties could make HSPs appropriate targets for modulating cell death pathways.  相似文献
8.
From a number of wild plant species growing on soils highly contaminated by heavy metals in Eastern Spain, Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (shrub tobacco) was selected for biotechnological modification, because it showed the most appropriate properties for phytoremediation. This plant has a wide geographic distribution, is fast-growing with a high biomass, and is repulsive to herbivores. Following Agrobacterium mediated transformation, the induction and overexpression of a wheat gene encoding phytochelatin synthase (TaPCS1) in this particular plant greatly increased its tolerance to metals such as Pb and Cd, developing seedling roots 160% longer than wild type plants. In addition, seedlings of transformed plants grown in mining soils containing high levels of Pb (1572 ppm) accumulated double concentration of this heavy metal than wild type. These results indicate that the transformed N. glauca represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.  相似文献
9.
Maximum likelihood estimation via the ECM algorithm: A general framework   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
MENG  XIAO-LI; RUBIN  DONALD B. 《Biometrika》1993,80(2):267-278
10.
Aerobic granular sludge: recent advances   总被引:27,自引:1,他引:26  
Aerobic granulation, a novel environmental biotechnological process, was increasingly drawing interest of researchers engaging in work in the area of biological wastewater treatment. Developed about one decade ago, it was exciting research work that explored beyond the limits of aerobic wastewater treatment such as treatment of high strength organic wastewaters, bioremediation of toxic aromatic pollutants including phenol, toluene, pyridine and textile dyes, removal of nitrogen, phosphate, sulphate and nuclear waste and adsorption of heavy metals. Despite this intensive research the mechanisms responsible for aerobic granulation and the strategy to expedite the formation of granular sludge, and effects of different operational and environmental factors have not yet been clearly described. This paper provides an up-to-date review on recent research development in aerobic biogranulation technology and applications in treating toxic industrial and municipal wastewaters. Factors affecting granulation, granule characterization, granulation hypotheses, effects of different operational parameters on aerobic granulation, response of aerobic granules to different environmental conditions, their applications in bioremediations, and possible future trends were delineated. The review attempts to shed light on the fundamental understanding in aerobic granulation by newly employed confocal laser scanning microscopic techniques and microscopic observations of granules.  相似文献
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