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1.
Three-dimensional (3D) osteoblast cell cultures were obtained in rotating-wall vessels (RWV), simulating microgravity. Three types of bioactive microcarriers, specifically modified bioactive glass particles, bioceramic hollow microspheres, and biodegradable bioactive glass-polymer composite microspheres, were developed and used with osteoblasts. The surfaces of composite microspheres fully transformed into bone apatite after 2-wk immersion in simulated physiological fluid, which demonstrated their bone-bonding ability. The motion of microcarriers in RWVs was photographically recorded and numerically analyzed. The trajectories of hollow microspheres showed that they migrated and eventually stayed around at the central region of the RWV. At their surfaces, shear stresses were low. In contrast, solid glass or polymer particles moved toward and finally bounced off the outer wall of the RWVs. Cell culture studies in the RWV using bone marrow stromal cells showed that the cells attached to and formed 3D aggregates with the hollow microspheres. Extracellular matrix and mineralization were observed in the aggregates. Cell culture studies also confirmed the ability of the composite microspheres to support 3D bone-like tissue formation. These data suggest that the new hollow bioceramic microspheres and degradable composite microspheres can be used as microcarriers for 3D bone tissue engineering in microgravity. They also have potential applications as drug delivery systems.  相似文献
2.
From circadian rhythms to cancer chronotherapeutics   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
Mammalian circadian rhythms result from a complex organization involving molecular clocks within nearly all “normal” cells and a dedicated neuroanatomical system, which coordinates the so-called “peripheral oscillators.” The core of the central clock system is constituted by the suprachiasmatic nuclei that are located on the floor of the hypothalamus. Our understanding of the mechanisms of circadian rhythm generation and coordination processes has grown rapidly over the past few years. In parallel, we have learnt how to use the predictable changes in cellular metabolism or proliferation along the 24h time scale in order to improve treatment outcome for a variety of diseases, including cancer. The chronotherapeutics of malignant diseases has emerged as a result of a consistent development ranging from experimental, clinical, and technological prerequisites to multicenter clinical trials of chronomodulated delivery schedules. Indeed large dosing-time dependencies characterize the tolerability of anticancer agents in mice or rats, a better efficacy usually results from treatment administration near the least toxic circadian time in rodent tumor models. Programmable in time multichannel pumps have allowed to test the chronotherapy concepts in cancer patients and to implement chronomodulated delivery schedules in current practice. Clinical phase I and II trials have established the feasibility, the safety, and the activity of the chronotherapy schedules, so that this treatment method has undergone further evaluation in international multicenter phase III trials. Overall, more than 2000 patients with metastatic disease have been registered in chronotherapy trials. Improved tolerability and/or better antitumor activity have been demonstrated in randomized multicenter studies involving large patient cohorts. The relation between circadian rhythmicity and quality of life and even survival has also been a puzzling finding over the recent years. An essential step toward further developments of circadian-timed therapy has been the recent constitution of a Chronotherapy cooperative group within the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. This group now involves over 40 institutions in 12 countries. It is conducting currently six trials and preparing four new studies. The 19 contributions in this special issue reflect the current status and perspectives of the several components of cancer chronotherapeutics.  相似文献
3.
CNS Drug Design Based on Principles of Blood-Brain Barrier Transport   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
Abstract: Lipid-soluble small molecules with a molecular mass under a 400–600-Da threshold are transported readily through the blood-brain barrier in vivo owing to lipid-mediated transport. However, other small molecules lacking these particular molecular properties, antisense drugs, and peptide-based pharmaceuticals generally undergo negligible transport through the blood-brain barrier in pharmacologically significant amounts. Therefore, if present day CNS drug discovery programs are to avoid termination caused by negligible blood-brain barrier transport, it is important to merge CNS drug discovery and CNS drug delivery as early as possible in the overall CNS drug development process. Strategies for special formulation that enable drug transport through the blood-brain barrier arise from knowledge of the molecular and cellular biology of blood-brain barrier transport processes.  相似文献
4.
血脑屏障与脑药物转运   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
血脑屏障的存在使大分子药物难以进入脑中发挥疗效。成为中枢神经系统疾病治疗的瓶颈。本就血脑屏障的结构特点、大分子药物转运入脑的途径及药物与载体间的连接策略等问题进行了综述。  相似文献
5.
Glutaraldehyde and glyoxal cross-linked microspheres were prepared using chitosan with different molecular weights (MWs) and degrees of deacetylation (DDAs) for sustained release of centchroman under physiological conditions. The DDA in chitosan was determined by different methods, and the samples were categorized as chitosan with low (48%), medium (62%), and high (75%) DDA. The size and shape of the microspheres were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and hydrophobicity was determined by adsorption of Rose Bengal dye on microspheres cross-linked with glutaraldehyde or glyoxal. The effect of MW, DDA, and degree of cross-linking in microspheres was studied on the degree of swelling, as well as by the loading and release of centchroman. The glyoxal cross-linked microspheres were more compact and hydrophobic and showed better sustained release in companion to chitosan microspheres and glutaraldehyde cross-linked microspheres. The linear fractional release of centchroman with the square root of time indicated a Fickian behavior of centchroman, and the microspheres also showed zero-order release kinetics for centchroman.  相似文献
6.
To enter the realm of human gene therapy, a novel drug delivery system is required for efficient delivery of small molecules with high safety for clinical usage. We have developed a unique vector "HVJ-E (hemagglutinating virus of Japan-envelope)" that can rapidly transfer plasmid DNA, oligonucleotide, and protein into cells by cell-fusion. In this study, we associated HVJ-E with magnetic nanoparticles, which can potentially enhance its transfection efficiency in the presence of a magnetic force. Magnetic nanoparticles, such as maghemite, with an average size of 29 nm, can be regulated by a magnetic force and basically consist of oxidized Fe which is commonly used as a supplement for the treatment of anemia. A mixture of magnetite particles with protamine sulfate, which gives a cationic surface charge on the maghemite particles, significantly enhanced the transfection efficiency in an in vitro cell culture system based on HVJ-E technology, resulting in a reduction in the required titer of HVJ. Addition of magnetic nanoparticles would enhance the association of HVJ-E with the cell membrane with a magnetic force. However, maghemite particles surface-coated with heparin, but not protamine sulfate, enhanced the transfection efficiency in the analysis of direct injection into the mouse liver in an in vivo model. The size and surface chemistry of magnetic particles could be tailored accordingly to meet specific demands of physical and biological characteristics. Overall, magnetic nanoparticles with different surface modifications can enhance HVJ-E-based gene transfer by modification of the size or charge, which could potentially help to overcome fundamental limitations to gene therapy in vivo.  相似文献
7.
Results of recent trials comparing combination chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), folinic acid (FOL), and oxaliplatin, given either as flat (A) or chronomodulated (B) infusion for metastatic colorectal cancer, were subjected to pharmaco-economic evaluation. The overall cost of treatment with the flat and chronomodulated protocols was equivalent. The expense of the delivery of medications with the chronotherapeutic arm (B) was greater than with the standard arm (A) because it was feasible to administer more courses (requiring more frequent doctor visits) and higher doses (high cost of medications) with containment of toxic reactions. Chrono-arm B was definitively more cost-effective than standard flat-arm A treatment since it made the outcome of treatment more effective; there was greater tumor response rate and longer time to progression with less treatment-associated toxicity. Finally, selection of the Melodie brand infusion pump to deliver the chronotherapy resulted in a further 18% reduction of overall costs and made it possible for patients to enjoy increased autonomy and improved quality of life.  相似文献
8.
树枝状聚合物在生物医学领域的应用进展   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
树枝状聚合物是一种人工合成的新型纳米材料 ,以其独特的结构和性能在生物医学领域受到了日益广泛的关注。作为一种新型非生物载体 ,其安全、高效、无毒 ,在药物输送、基因转移和医疗诊断等方面具有广阔的应用前景。  相似文献
9.
Biological applications of dendrimers   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
In the past year, significant advances have been made in the synthesis and study of glycodendrimers and peptide dendrimers. Application of these dendrimers to the study of carbohydrate-protein and protein-protein interactions has facilitated the understanding of these processes. In addition, dendrimers show great promise as DNA- and drug-delivery systems.  相似文献
10.
Biophysical aspects of using liposomes as delivery vehicles   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Liposomes are used as biocompatible carriers of drugs, peptides, proteins, plasmic DNA, antisense oligonucleotides or ribozymes, for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biochemical purposes. The enormous versatility in particle size and in the physical parameters of the lipids affords an attractive potential for constructing tailor-made vehicles for a wide range of applications. Some of the recent literature will be reviewed here and presented from a biophysical point of view, thus providing a background for the more specialized articles in this special issue on liposome technology. Different properties (size, colloidal behavior, phase transitions, and polymorphism) of diverse lipid formulations (liposomes, lipoplexes, cubic phases, emulsions, and solid lipid nanoparticles) for distinct applications (parenteral, transdermal, pulmonary, and oral administration) will be rationalized in terms of common structural, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the lipids. This general biophysical basis helps to understand pharmaceutically relevant aspects such as liposome stability during storage and towards serum, the biodistribution and specific targeting of cargo, and how to trigger drug release and membrane fusion. Methods for the preparation and characterization of liposomal formulations in vitro will be outlined, too.  相似文献
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