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1.
昆虫的雌雄二型现象   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
王孟卿  杨定 《昆虫知识》2005,42(6):721-725
对发生雌雄二型现象的昆虫类群、生态因子及进化进行了概括总结;还特别介绍了长足虻科昆虫雌雄二型的相关方面;并简要讨论了雌雄二型与性选择的关系。  相似文献
2.
Sampling programs to establish baseline ecosystem information (e.g., species abundance and diversity) often fail to consider the potential influence of sampling techniques on results. Research on sampling economically important insects has demonstrated the possible influences of trap color and trap placement on results, but few data have been collected from natural environments. Consequently, we examined the effects of color (yellow and blue) and placement (exposed and shaded by plants) of sticky traps on insect captures and diversity estimates from a Nebraska inland salt marsh community. We identified 1913 specimens from 67 insect families collected during five trapping dates in July 1996. More Cicindelidae were collected on exposed traps, and more Staphylinidae, Dolichopodidae, Cicadellidae, and Thripidae were collected on shaded traps. More Dolichopodidae were collected on yellow traps, while more Syrphidae and Thripidae were collected on blue. Shannon and alpha diversity measures were significantly higher for shaded traps than exposed traps, but were not affected by trap color. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing sampling techniques when establishing diversity estimates. These data provide the first complete accounting of community-level insect response to colored sticky traps and provide new information for color preference of non-economic insect species.  相似文献
3.
Dipteran predators of Simuliid blackflies: a worldwide review   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Haematophagous female blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of vertebrate pathogens, namely filarial Dirofilaria, Mansonella, Onchocerca and protozoal Leucocytozoon. Immature stages of Simuliidae inhabit lotic waterways, the sessile larvae filter-feeding and often forming a large proportion of the benthic biomass, usually aggregated in well-oxygenated sections of streams, rivers, waterfalls and spillways. Simuliid control practices depend on larvicidal chemicals, biological products (bacteria, nematodes) and environmental modification. The potential use of predators for biological control of Simuliidae has not been exploited. Predators of Simuliidae include examples of at least 12 families of Diptera and other predaceous arthropods (Crustacea and insects: Coleoptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera), invertebrates (notably Turbellaria), as well as browsing fish. Diptera impacting upon simuliid populations comprise mainly Chironomidae, Empididae and Muscidae, although several other families (Asilidae, Dolichopodidae, Phoridae, Drosophilidae, Scathophagidae) play a significant role as predators. Details of predator and prey species and life stages are presented, by zoogeographical region, including the prevalence of cannibalism among Simuliidae.  相似文献
4.
Analyzing the courtship behavior of long-legged flies (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), we focus on the evolutionary development ofcourtship signals. Long-legged flies may serve as a model forthis evolutionary process, because males of some species presentsexually dimorphic badges during courtship, whereas others donot exhibit such conspicuous signals but present lavish courtshipbehavior, including dynamic flight maneuvers. A comparison ofthese two groups within a single taxonomic family provides insightinto the evolution of courtship signals and the correspondingbehavior. Males of the closely related Empididae do not possesssuch badges. Within the super-family Empidoidea, we proposean evolutionary shift from dynamically courting and mating onthe wing (in Empididae) to courting and mating on ground (inDolichopodidae), accompanied by signaling through badge-waving.By comparing previously published data and observations on courtshipbehavior in Dolichopodidae, we present the hypothesis that thelatter replaced the former energetically expensive behavioras a case of automimicry and sensory trap.  相似文献
5.
6.
本文报道采自中国西南地区贵州省的巨口长足虻属Diostracus Loew,1861三新种:白斑巨口长足虻D.albuginosus sp.nov.,薄叶巨口长足虻D.lamellatus sp.nov.,和双突巨口长足虻D.dicer-aeus sp.nov.。新种的模式标本保存于作者所在单位。  相似文献
7.
采用支序分析的方法首次对古北和东洋区长足虻亚科的24属3亚属之间的系统发育关系进行了分析.结果表明,长足虻亚科为一严格的单系群,其中Ahercostomus、Allohercostomus、Tachytrechus和Aphalacrosoma为一单系群,Tachytrechus和Aphalacrosoma为姐妹群.原为寡长足虻属Hercostomus亚属之一的Gymnopternus与新属Setihercostomus的亲缘关系较近,为有效属.粗柄长足虻属Ludovicius与Sybistroma为一严格单系群,建议合并为一属.弓脉长足虻属Paraclius Coquillet应为Pelastoneurus的异名.建立3新属,即准长毛长足虻属Aphypophyllus gen nov,模式种Ahy-pophyllus sinensis(Yang,1996);准白长足虻属Aphalacrosoma gen nov,模式种Aphalacrosoma postiseta(Yang et Saigusa,2001);毛颜寡长足虻属Setihercostomus gen nov.,模式种Setihercostomus zonalis(Yang,Yang et Li,1998).原为寡长足虻属的亚属Ahercostomus提升为属,模式种Hercostomus(Ahercostomus)jiangchenganus(Yang et Saigusa,2001).建立的新组合为:Ahypophytlus sinensis(Yang,1996)comb. nov. , Aphalacrosoma hubeiense (Yang, 1998) comb. nov., A. postiseta (Yang et Saigusa, 2001) comb. nov.,A. sichuanense (Yang et Saigusa, 1999) comb. nov., Seti hercostomus setifacies (Stackelberg, 1934) comb. nov., S. zonalis (Yang, Yang et Li, 1998)comb. nov., S. wuyangensis (Wei, 1997) comb. nov., S. huangi (Zhang, Yang et Masunaga, 2004) and Ahercostomus jiangchenganus (Yanget Saigusa, 2001) comb. nov. .  相似文献
8.
The most abundant predators of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), include Platysoma cylindrica (Paykull) and Medetera bistriata Parent. We amended bark sandwiches with pine engravers and adult P. cylindrica and larval M. bistriata, and report observations on these endophytic predators. Adult P. cylindrica preferred adult prey, and appeared to be facultative egg predators, which contrasts with other Histeridae. The larvae of P. cylindrica fed on pine engraver larvae. Protection from predators is generally assumed to be an advantage of an endophytic life history, but we found that this predator exploited the herbivore's gallery architecture to facilitate prey capture. Larval M. bistriata also fed on pine engraver larvae. Immediate paralysis or death of the prey followed a strike with their tentorial rods. Such rapid immobilization, in conjuction with the glandular histology of Medetera spp., suggests that they use a toxin to arrest prey.  相似文献
9.
The conservation value of grassland and reed marsh habitats in Belgium was determined on the basis of dolichopodid communities (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Four grassland and one reed marsh sites within the 'Bourgoyen-Ossemeersen' Nature Reserve (B.O.) (Ghent) were sampled with white water traps from March 1993 until March 1994. Subsequently, these soil faunas were compared with those of reed marsh habitats in 'Het Meetjeslandse Krekengebied' (M.K.) sampled in 1990. Comparisons of species communities were carried out by means of multivariate analysis techniques. The DCA and CCA on the B.O. sites produced a clear separation between the grassland and the reed marsh communities. Light intensity and soil humidity were among the most important factors determining species distributions. The comparison between the B.O. and M.K. communities revealed that sampling sites were clustered according to their geographical location rather than to habitat type. Overall species richness and diversity was not significantly different between grasslands and reed marshes. However, conservation quality estimates of the sites using the Site Conservation Quality Index (SCQI) indicated that reed marshes comprise a considerably larger number of rare and Red Data Book species. Moreover, besides typical reed marsh-inhabiting species, reed marshes also house species with other ecological affinities sometimes in rather high abundance. As a result, reed marshes are considered highly valuable for the survival of several wetland dolichopodid species.  相似文献
10.
杨定 《昆虫学报》1998,41(-1):180-185
 文中记述了长足虻科(Dolichopodidae)6新种。  相似文献
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