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1.
The evolution of distyly in Primula vulgaris   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Experiments on pollen flow and seed production were performed in populations of P. vulgaris in order to examine the roles of selection for reduced self-pollination in a partially self-fertile morph, selection for reduced stigma clogging, selection for a pollen saving effect, and selection for disassortative pollination in the evolution of morphological distyly (reciprocal herkogamy). Selection for reduced self-pollination and disassortative pollination were shown to have a plausible role in the evolution of this dimorphism. Selection for reduced stigma clogging and pollen saving appeared to have no obvious role in the evolution of morphological distyly.  相似文献
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Documenting the floral biology and breeding system of species throughout the Rubiaceae family provides data on the number of times heterostyly and dioecy may have evolved in this large family. The objectives of this paper are to quantify (a) whether Chassalia corallioides , a small tree endemic to La Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, is another example of the evolution of dioecy from distyly and (b) whether reproductive traits linked to male and female function vary over the ecological distribution of this species. Quantification of pollen production and fruit set following controlled and natural pollinations demonstrate that this species is dioecious. Male flowers have longer corolla tubes than female flowers. Female flowers have long styles with stigmas placed above the anthers whereas males have short styles with stigmas placed below the anthers. Stigmas and anthers are reciprocally placed in each morph, illustrating that the species is morphologically heterostylous. Both fecundity and flower size are negatively correlated with altitude. In male plants, corollas are shorter and wider and anthers are placed closer to the mouth of the corolla tube with increasing altitude. Male plants flowered more often than female plants, the likely cause of the male biased sex ratio in each of the two years studied. The evolution of dioecy in relation to the island biogeography of the region and the diversification of the genus Chassalia is discussed.  相似文献
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Abstract.— Alternative ontogenetic pathways among heterostylous species of Rubiaceae may reflect differences in their evolutionary histories. In this study, measurements were taken at different developmental stages on a series of long-styled (LS) and short-styled (SS) buds of the heterostylous taxa Psychotria chiapensis, P. poeppigiana , and Bouvardia ternifolia (all Rubiaceae). Results indicated that modifications in growth rates of stamens relative to corollas in all three species led to differences in anther heights between LS and SS flowers. Distinct style heights for LS and SS flowers of P. chiapensis and P. poeppigiana originate in the earlier stages of bud development and are maintained as styles elongate at equal rates. This contrasts with B. ternifolia , which has differences in style heights resulting from unequal relative growth rates between floral morphs. The "approach herkogamous" floral morphology, defined by having stigmas positioned above anthers, has been proposed as a potential evolutionary precursor for heterostylous taxa. To examine this hypothesis, floral development of two species with approach herkogamous morphologies, Psychotria pittieri and P. brachiata , was compared to that of the three heterostylous taxa. Differences in the relative rates of style elongation for flowers of approach herkogamous versus heterostylous species predict additional steps in the original model for the evolution of heterostyly from an approach herkogamous ancestor. The diversity of heterostylous ontogenies found within Rubiaceae provides insight into potential evolutionary pathways for this sexual system in other angiosperm families.  相似文献
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Distyly has been hypothesized to promote cross-pollination by reducing intrafloral and geitonogamous self-pollination, and enhancing intermorph pollination. Distylous plants typically display both reciprocal herkogamy and a heteromorphic incompatibility system, which allows mating only between morphs. Distyly and its pollination consequences were examined in two Pentanisia species with long-tubed flowers which are pollinated almost exclusively by butterflies. METHODS: Anther and stigma heights were measured to quantify reciprocal herkogamy. The type of incompatibility system was determined by observing pollen tubes and seed production following controlled hand pollination. Pollen loads on pollinators and stigmas were also examined to assess the efficiency of intermorph pollen flow. KEY RESULTS: Pentanisia prunelloides and P. angustifolia exhibit reciprocal herkogamy and a host of ancillary dimorphisms, including pollen colour, exine sculpturing, stigmatic papilla shape and floral-tube pubescence. Controlled hand-pollinations revealed the presence of a strong heteromorphic incompatibility system in both species. The site of incompatibility differed between the morphs; intramorph pollen tubes were blocked in the style of the short-styled morph and on the stigmatic surface of the long-styled morph. Butterflies carried pollen from the short- and long-styled morphs primarily on their head and proboscis, respectively. Natural pollination resulted in a higher proportion of pollen transfer from long- to short-styled plants than vice versa. Nevertheless, fruit set did not differ between morphs. CONCLUSIONS: Both Pentanisia species are fully distylous. Reciprocal herkogamy results in pollen from the two morphs being carried on different locations on pollinators' bodies, which in turn promotes intermorph pollination. Intramorph pollination does not result in fertilization, because of an effective heteromorphic incompatibility system.  相似文献
7.
Abeliophyllum distichum , was assessed using starch gel electrophoresis. Although A. distichum maintained relatively high genetic diversity probably due to floral heteromorphism and preferred outcrossing, their genetic variation, where small effective size of population and genetic drift are of utmost importance, was lower than the other outbreeding plants. The calculated GsT indicated a high level of genetic differentiation among populations, suggesting that gene flow was limited. The dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance showed that the Pu-an and the Koe-san populations fell into two distinct groups, which were consistent with geographic distance and distribution. It was probable that in the populations of A. distichum sexually reproduced individuals rarely become established within the populations. From observations, Lassioglossum bee was found to be the most effective pollinator of A. distichum. Artificial crossing experiment indicated that pollinators contributed considerably to natural population and that pollinator limitation could potentially reduce fitness of A. distichum in wild populations. The management of rare plant species should include improvement of genetic exchanges among populations by artificial gene flow. From each of the four subpopulations, fresh twigs from 20 trees should be collected and propagated as the cutting for ex situ conservation. Received 30 April 1999/ Accepted in revised form 23 January 2000  相似文献
8.
软紫草二型花柱植株结实特性的比较研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
冯建菊  谭敦炎 《西北植物学报》2006,26(12):2587-2591
对软紫草二型花柱植株结实特性的观察结果表明:3个样地中长花柱植株的分枝数、每株花数及结实率均高于短花柱植株;在S1和S2中,长花柱植株的单株种子产量、结籽率和种子千粒重均高于短花柱植株;S3中长花柱植株的单株种子产量和结籽率高于短花柱植株,而种子千粒重却低于短花柱植株。统计分析显示,软紫草2种花型植株的结实特性在各样地中存在不同程度的差异,而同一花型植株的结实特性在不同样地间多表现出差异显著,说明软紫草的结实特性受花型和生境的双重影响,且生境比花型对其结实特性的影响更大。  相似文献
9.
小报春不同授粉组合亲和性研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
利用小报春‘红星’、‘紫霞’、‘罗兰香’3个品种分别设置8种授粉组合,统计了不同授粉组合的结实情况和单果种子数量,并对‘红星’品种部分授粉组合的花粉萌发与花粉管伸长过程进行荧光显微观察。结果显示:(1)3个品种的结实率和单果种子数量均表现为异型植株授粉>长花柱同型异株授粉、长花柱自交>短花柱同型异株授粉、短花柱自交,不同授粉组合间单果种子数量差异极显著,异型植株授粉类型结实率均达到100%,单果种子数量为44~181粒,显著高于自交组合和同型异株杂交组合;以异型致死花粉作为蒙导对短花柱同型异株授粉组合的结实有一定促进作用,但对长花柱同型异株授粉组合的结实没有一致的促进作用;3个品种中‘红星’的结实率和单果种子数量最高。(2)荧光显微观察表明,异型授粉组合花粉在柱头上大量萌发并在花柱中伸长,授粉144h后花粉管开始进入子房;同型授粉组合授粉12h后花粉开始萌发,但直到授粉后144h花粉管还没有进入花柱;自交授粉组合授粉后144h仍无花粉萌发。实验结果说明,小报春存在明显的自交不亲和性,且短花柱类型的自交不亲和性比长花柱类型强。  相似文献
10.
绣球茜的二型花柱及其传粉生物学初步研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
首次对绣球茜(Dunnia sinensis Tutch)的花药和柱头高度、花粉和柱头形态,以及人工辅助授粉的结实情况等进行了研究.结果表明:绣球茜在同一居群中同时具有长花柱(Pin 型)和短花柱(Thrum)两种花型,长花柱植株的柱头和雄蕊高分别为9.61±0.36 mm和6.79±0.38 mm,短花柱则为6.11±0.56 mm和8.96±0.59 mm,表现出互补式雌雄异位的花部特征.通过人工辅助授粉,两种花型植株的自交和同型植株间异交都不结实,仅在型间异交方能正常结实,说明绣球茜中存在极强的自交不亲和和型内不亲和现象.在花粉与柱头形态方面:长柱型花的单花花粉量(38555.6±6258.4)显著地小于短柱型花(52145.45±8924.5)(t=4.009,P<0.01),长柱花和短柱型花的胚珠数分别为38.73±1.85和39.1±2.25(t=-4.13,P>0.01);长柱型花花粉粒的大小(极径21.27±0.70 μm)显著地小于短柱花(21.92±0.79μm)类型(t=3.890,P<0.01),而柱头乳突大小长柱类型要大于短柱类型,表现出明显的二型性.研究结果表明绣球茜是一种典型的二型花柱植物.此外,对其传粉昆虫及昆虫访花行为的观察表明,蝶类(青风蝶属Graphium)和蜂类(熊蜂Bombus sp.和木蜂Xylocopa magnifica Smith)为绣球茜的主要访花昆虫和传粉昆虫,它们能够在两种不同花型植株之间有效地传粉.  相似文献
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