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1.
Programmed cell death in intervertebral disc degeneration   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is largely a process of destruction and failure of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and symptomatic IVD degeneration is thought to be one of the leading causes of morbidity or life quality deterioration in the elderly. To date, however, the mechanism of IVD degeneration is still not fully understood. Cellular loss from cell death in the process of IVD degeneration has long been confirmed and considered to contribute to ECM degradation, but the causes and the manners of IVD cell death remain unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD) is executed by an active cellular process and is extensively involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including embryonic development and human degenerative diseases. Thus, the relationship between PCD and IVD degeneration has become a new research focus of interest in recent years. By reviewing the available literature concentrated on PCD in IVD and discussing the methodology of detecting PCD in IVD cells, its inducing factors, the relationship of cell death to ECM degradation, and the potential therapy for IVD degeneration by modulation of PCD, we conclude that IVD cells undergo PCD via different signal transduction pathways in response to different stimuli, that PCD may play a role in the process of IVD degeneration, and that modulation of PCD might be a potential therapeutic strategy for IVD degeneration.  相似文献
2.
Molecular consequences of long-term deformation and altered mechanical loading of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue in scoliosis have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that histological disc degeneration is faster in scoliosis than in normal ageing and that this is reflected by an altered gene expression profile. A semiquantitative histodegeneration score (HDS) revealed significantly enhanced degeneration in scoliosis (HDS 5.3) versus age-matched control IVDs (HDS 2.25; p = 0.001). Gene expression analysis by cDNA array and RT-PCR demonstrated higher mRNA levels for extracellular-matrix molecules like aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, lumican, chondromodulin, and COL2A1 in scoliotic discs versus normal discs of identical degeneration score. No differences were evident for catabolic molecules like MMP3, MMP13, MMP17, and TIMP1. In sum, morphologic disc degeneration was accelerated by about 2 decades in scoliosis versus physiological ageing and developed against a background of stronger anabolic matrix metabolism at younger age or in response to the altered mechanical environment of the tissue.  相似文献
3.
不同月龄大鼠椎间盘退变与多效生长因子表达的关系   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的观察不同月龄大鼠椎间盘的形态学变化并检测椎间盘中多效生长因子(pleiotrophin,PTN)的表达,探讨PTN与椎间盘退变的关系。方法取Wistar大鼠50只,以1,3,6,12,18个月龄不同分为5组,每组10只。采用苏木精-伊红染色观察椎间盘的形态学变化。采用SABC免疫组织化学方法,检测椎间盘中PTN的表达情况;结果(1)随着月龄的增加,椎间盘组织结构紊乱的程度逐渐增加,髓核内基质降解、正中出现空腔,胶原纤维增生、粗大、排列紊乱、并可见纤维断裂或缺失。(2)随着大鼠月龄的增加(1-12月龄),椎间盘细胞中PTN的表达有逐渐减低的趋势,但至18月龄,PTN表达又有所增加;6和12月龄组椎间盘细胞中PTN的表达显著低于1月龄组,而18月龄组PTN的表达显著高于12月龄组。同月龄组椎间盘细胞中,PTN在终板的表达高于髓核和纤维环,髓核和纤维环中PTN的表达未见明显差异。结论大鼠椎间盘结构随月龄增加发生退行性变,PTN参与了大鼠椎间盘的退变,并可能通过促进椎间盘组织中新生血管的形成,延缓椎间盘的退变。  相似文献
4.
5.
Myocilin is a 55-57-kDa protein that is a member of the olfactomedin protein family. It is expressed in the cornea, sclera and trabecular network of the eye, myelinated peripheral nerves, heart, skeletal muscle, trachea and other tissues. Myocilin binds to a domain of fibronectin, type IV collagen and laminen in the trabecular meshwork of the eye, and its expression is influenced by transforming growth factor beta. Because these extracellular matrix components also are common in the intervertebral disc, the objective of our study was to determine whether the matricellular protein myocilin could be detected in the human or sand rat intervertebral disc using immunohistochemistry and to assess its localization. We investigated 16 specimens of human disc tissue and discs from six sand rats. Three human disc cell cultures grown in three-dimensional culture also were evaluated. Immunocytochemical annulus analysis showed the presence of myocilin within the disc cell cytoplasm in some, but not all, cells. Extracellular matrix in both the human and sand rat disc was negative for myocilin localization. Myocilin is believed to play a role in cell-cell adhesion and/or signaling. Myocilin may have such functions within the disc cell population in a manner similar to tenascin, SPARC and thrombospondin, which are other matricellular proteins recently shown to be present in the disc.  相似文献
6.
During intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, normal matrix synthesis decreases and degradation of disc matrix increases. A number of proteases that are increased during disc degeneration are thought to be involved in its pathogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP 7) (Matrilysin, PUMP-1) is known to cleave the major matrix molecules found within the IVD, i.e., the proteoglycan aggrecan and collagen type II. To date, however, it is not known how its expression changes with degeneration or its exact location. We investigated the localization of MMP 7 in human, histologically graded, nondegenerate, degenerated and prolapsed discs to ascertain whether MMP 7 is up-regulated during disc degeneration. Samples of human IVD tissue were fixed in neutral buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin to score the degree of morphological degeneration. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize MMP 7 in 41 human IVDs with varying degrees of degeneration. We found that the chondrocyte-like cells of the nucleus pulposus and inner annulus fibrosus were MMP 7 immunopositive; little immunopositivity was observed in the outer annulus. Nondegenerate discs showed few immunopositive cells. A significant increase in the proportion of MMP 7 immunopositive cells was seen in the nucleus pulposus of discs classified as showing intermediate levels of degeneration and a further increase was seen in discs with severe degeneration. Prolapsed discs showed more MMP 7 immunopositive cells compared to nondegenerated discs, but fewer than those seen in cases of severe degeneration.  相似文献
7.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade components of the extracellular matrix of the disc, but the presence of MMP-19 has not been explored. In other tissues, MMP-19 is known to act in proteolysis of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3, thereby exposing this protein to make it available to influence cell behavior. MMP-19 also has been shown to inhibit capillary-like formation and thus play a role in the avascular nature of the disc. Using immunohistochemistry, normal discs from six subjects aged newborn through 10 years and 20 disc specimens from control donors or surgical patients aged 15-76 (mean age 40.2 years) were examined for immunolocalization of MMP-19; six Thompson grade I discs, five Thompson grade II, eight Thompson grade III, five Thompson grade IV, and one Thompson grade V discs were analyzed. The results indicate that in discs from young subjects, MMP-19 was uniformly localized in the outer annulus. In discs from adult donors and surgical patients, outer and inner annulus cells only occasionally showed MMP-19 localization. The greatest expression of MMP-19 was observed in young discs, and little expression was seen in older or degenerating discs. Because MMP-19 has been shown to regulate IGF-mediated proliferation in other tissues, its decline in the aging/degenerating disc may contribute to the age-related decrease in disc cell numbers.  相似文献
8.
Cell therapy seems to be a promising way to reconstitute degenerated discs. We elucidate the basic aspects of intervertebral disc (IVD) cell therapy to estimate its potential in disc regeneration. Cell transfer efficiency and survival was quantified by luciferase expression after injection of recombinant cells into healthy, nucleotomized or mechanically degenerated rabbit IVDs in vitro, in situ or in vivo. A two-component fibrin matrix was adapted to allow injection of a fluid cell suspension that quickly polymerizes in IVDs. Thirty-five to fifty percent of matrix injected cells remained in the nucleus and transition zone in contrast to a rapid loss of medium-injected cells. Nucleotomy, which reduces intradiscal pressure, was crucial to the survival of the transferred cells over 3 days and nutritional enrichment of the fibrin matrix with potent biomolecules from serum significantly enhanced cell viability. In conclusion, advanced matrix substitutes are needed for efficient transfer and improved cell survival in the low-nutrient intradiscal environment to further improve disc cell therapy.  相似文献
9.
Spondylosis in the desert sand rat (Psammomys obesus) has been studied as a model for intervertebral disc degeneration. Reducing sugars, which react with protein amino groups to form a diverse group of moieties with fluorescence and cross-linking properties, have been implicated in the structural and functional alterations of proteins that occur during aging and long-term diabetes. This study was undertaken to determine the changes in two matrix cross-links of the intervertebral disc and to study their association with aging. Two types of cross-links were studied: the physiological cross-link, pyridinoline, which is initiated by lysyl oxidase; and the non-enzymatically initiated cross-link, pentosidine. A significant increase in pentosidine, but not pyridinoline, was observed in the intervertebral disc with aging. Radiological, histological and biochemical findings support a hypothesis that subchondral bone responses, marked by increased bone density, contribute to alterations in the intervertebral disc. Cross-link changes in the structural proteins of the disc may contribute to the progressive fibrocartilage degradation typical of intervertebral disc disease as an effect of age.  相似文献
10.
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