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1.
The influence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on apoptotic cell death and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression in cultured bovine retinal pericytes was investigated. When pericytes were incubated with three immunochemically distinct AGEs, which were prepared in vitro by incubating bovine serum albumin with glucose, glyceraldehyde, or glycolaldehyde, apoptotic cell death and DNA ladder formation were significantly induced. The cytopathic effects of glyceraldehyde- or glycolaldehyde-derived AGEs were significantly enhanced in AGE receptor-transfected pericytes. Furthermore, all of these AGEs were found to upregulate the secretory forms of VEGF mRNA levels in retinal pericytes. These results suggest that AGEs disturbed retinal microvascular homeostasis by inducing pericyte apoptosis and VEGF overproduction and thus were involved in the pathogenesis of early phase diabetic retinopathy.  相似文献
2.
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has recently been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye, suggesting that loss of PEDF is involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, a protective role for PEDF in pericyte loss in early diabetic retinopathy remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether PEDF proteins could protect against advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced injury in retinal pericytes. Ligand blot analysis revealed that pericytes possessed a membrane protein with binding affinity for PEDF. PEDF proteins were found to significantly inhibit AGE-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the subsequent decrease in DNA synthesis and apoptotic cell death in pericytes. Further, PEDF proteins completely restored the down-regulation of bcl-2 gene expression in AGE-exposed pericytes. The results demonstrated that PEDF proteins protected cultured pericytes from AGE-induced cytotoxicity through its anti-oxidative properties. Our present study suggests that substitution of PEDF proteins may be a promising strategy in treatment of patients with early diabetic retinopathy.  相似文献
3.
The polyol pathway consists of two enzymes, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that acceleration of the polyol pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. However, a functional role remains to be elucidated for SDH in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, cultured bovine retinal capillary pericytes were used to investigate the effects of SDH overexpression on glucose toxicity. High glucose modestly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased DNA synthesis, and up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels in cultured pericytes. SDH overexpression was found to significantly stimulate ROS generation in high glucose-exposed pericytes and subsequently potentiate the cytopathic effects of glucose. Fidarestat, a newly developed AR inhibitor, and N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, completely prevented these deleterious effects of SDH overexpression on pericytes. Furthermore, fidarestat administration was found to significantly prevent vascular hyperpermeability, the characteristic changes of the early phase of diabetic retinopathy, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our present results suggest that SDH-mediated conversion of sorbitol to fructose and the resultant ROS generation may play an active role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Blockage of sorbitol formation by fidarestat could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of early phase of diabetic retinopathy.  相似文献
4.
Corticosteroids provide an effective treatment to reduce edema for conditions in which the blood-brain or blood-retinal barrier is compromised. However, little is known about the mechanism by which these hormones affect endothelial cell function. We hypothesized that hydrocortisone would reduce transport of water and solutes across bovine retinal endothelial cell (BREC) monolayers coincident with changes to the tight junction protein occludin. Treatment of BREC with 103 nm hydrocortisone for two days significantly decreased water and solute transport across cell monolayers. Immunoblot analysis of occludin extracted in SDS or urea based buffers revealed a 1.65- or 2.57-fold increase in content, respectively. A similar two-fold increase in occludin mRNA was observed by real-time PCR. Immunocytochemistry revealed hydrocortisone dramatically increased both occludin and ZO-1 staining at the cell border. Additionally, 4 h of hydrocortisone treatment significantly reduced occludin phosphorylation. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a regulated decrease in occludin phosphorylation associated with increased barrier properties. In conclusion, hydrocortisone directly affects retinal endothelial cell barrier properties coincident with changes in occludin content, phosphorylation and tight junction assembly. Localized hydrocortisone therapy may be developed as a treatment option for patients suffering from retinal edema due to diabetes.  相似文献
5.
Chen BH  Jiang DY  Tang LS 《Life sciences》2006,79(11):1040-1048
One of the histopathologic hallmarks of early diabetic retinopathy is the selective loss of pericytes. Evidences suggest that the pericyte loss in vivo is mediated by apoptosis. However, the underlying cause of pericyte apoptosis is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on apoptotic cell death in bovine retinal pericytes (BRPs). After incubation of BRPs with 0.47, 1.88, 7.5, 30 microM of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 4 days, we assayed the pericytes apoptosis by FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting), and further measured the signaling pathway involved. The results showed that AGE-BSA could induce significantly the apoptosis of BRPs in a dose-dependent manner compared with controls, associated with an increase in intracellular malondialdehyde level and caspase-3 activity; a decrease in intracellular catalase, SOD activities and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. SOD and selective caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk can inhibit pericyte apoptosis induced by AGE-BSA. These data suggest that the pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy involves an apoptotic process, and that elevated AGE observed in diabetes may cause apoptosis in BRPs through an oxidative stress mechanism. The decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activation of caspase-3 are associated with apoptotic process.  相似文献
6.
2型糖尿病性视网膜病变临床因素分析   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
目的:探讨影响2型糖尿病视网膜病变(DR)发病的相关临床因素。方法:回顾性分析483例2型糖尿病患者的临床资料。结果:2型糖尿痛DR患病率为35%(169/483),其中非增殖型视网膜病变(NPDR)73.4%(124/169),增殖型视网膜病变(PDR)26.6% (45/169)。DR患者的病程、SBP、合并肾脏病变、合并心脏病变、HbA1c、TC、TG、LDL-c、BUN和Cr均显著高于NDR患者(P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示病程、年龄、SBP、TC、LDL-c、合并心脏病变和/或肾脏病变是DR发病的危险因素。结论:DM病程、患病年龄、SBP、HbA1c、TC、LDL-c、合并心脏病变和/或肾脏病变、肾功能是DR发生发展的危险因素。  相似文献
7.
Aminoguanidine inhibits the development of retinopathy in diabetic animals, but the mechanism remains unclear. Inasmuch as aminoguanidine is a relatively selective inhibitor of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we have investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on the retinal nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the presence and absence of aminoguanidine. In vivo studies utilized retinas from experimentally diabetic rats treated or without aminoguanidine for 2 months, and in vitro studies used bovine retinal endothelial cells and a transformed retinal glial cell line (rMC-1) incubated in 5 mm and 25 mm glucose with and without aminoguanidine (100 microg/mL). NO was detected as nitrite and nitrate, and nitrotyrosine and iNOS were detected using immunochemical methods. Retinal homogenates from diabetic animals had greater than normal levels of NO and iNOS (p < 0.05), and nitrotyrosine was greater than normal, especially in one band immunoprecipitated from retinal homogenates. Oral aminoguanidine significantly inhibited all of these increases. Nitrotyrosine was detected immunohistochemically only in the retinal vasculature of non-diabetic and diabetic animals. Retinal endothelial and rMC-1 cells cultured in high glucose increased NO and NT, and aminoguanidine inhibited both increases in rMC-1 cells, but only NT in endothelial cells. Hyperglycemia increases NO production in retinal cells, and aminoguanidine can inhibit this abnormality. Inhibition of diabetic retinopathy by aminoguanidine might be mediated in part by inhibition of sequelae of NO production.  相似文献
8.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to make a catalogue of soluble proteins in the human vitreous humor (VH). Fifty-one different proteins were identified on silver-stained two-dimensional (2D) gel patterns with VH proteins obtained from diabetic retinopathy and macular hole. Thirty of these have not been listed in the reported 2D profiles of plasma. Immunoglobulin (Ig), alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha2-HS glycoprotein,and complement C(4) fragment showed stronger spots in VH with diabetic retinopathy patient samples than those with macular hole. Pigment epithelium-derived factor, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the cornea and vitreous, was clearly detected in VH with diabetes. It is impressive that the inhibitor increases in the vitreous with proliferative angiogenesis.  相似文献
9.
10.
实验恒河猴糖尿病动物模型建立及视网膜并发症的研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
[目的]糖尿病是由于多种因素和遗传因素导致体内胰岛素相对或绝对分泌不足,而引起的代谢性内分泌疾病,它以血糖、尿糖升高为特点,起病隐蔽,通过并发症使人致残致死,是继心血管、癌症之后的第三大致死性疾病,很可能成为21世纪人类的“第一杀手”(1,2)。本文采用人工诱导的方法,建立恒河猴糖尿病动物模型,研究糖尿病疾病的发展和及其并发症的发生、发展规律和防治措施,同时对于治疗糖尿病新药的安全性评价和药物疗效的观察具有广阔的运用前景。[方法]选用成熟的、健康的、雄性恒河猴9只,随机分成三个组,其中高剂量组(60mg/kg)1只,中剂量组(45m…  相似文献
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