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1.
M.J. Bibb  P.R. Findlay  M.W. Johnson   《Gene》1984,30(1-3):157-166
Bacterial genes that code for proteins appear to possess a codon usage characteristic of their overall base composition. This results in different but predictable non-random distributions of nucleotides within codons, permitting the recognition of protein-coding sequences in a wide range of bacterial species. The nature of this distribution depends on the base composition of the coding sequence. The position-specific differences are especially conspicuous in genes of extreme G + C content, allowing the particularly reliable prediction of the reading frame and coding strand of experimentally determined DNA sequences. This fmding has been exploited to identify the coding sequence of the viomycin phosphotransferase (vph) gene of Streptomyces vinaceus. An easily applied computer program (“Frame”) has been written to carry out and display such analyses.  相似文献
2.
Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: A maximum likelihood approach   总被引:126,自引:0,他引:126  
Summary The application of maximum likelihood techniques to the estimation of evolutionary trees from nucleic acid sequence data is discussed. A computationally feasible method for finding such maximum likelihood estimates is developed, and a computer program is available. This method has advantages over the traditional parsimony algorithms, which can give misleading results if rates of evolution differ in different lineages. It also allows the testing of hypotheses about the constancy of evolutionary rates by likelihood ratio tests, and gives rough indication of the error of the estimate of the tree.By acceptance of this article, the publisher and/or recipient acknowledges the U.S. government's right to retain a nonexclusive, royalty-free licence in and to any copyright covering this paperThis report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately-owned rights  相似文献
3.
Summary The entire chloroplast genome of the monocot rice (Oryza sativa) has been sequenced and comprises 134525 bp. Predicted genes have been identified along with open reading frames (ORFs) conserved between rice and the previously sequenced chloroplast genomes, a dicot, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and a liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha). The same complement of 30 tRNA and 4 rRNA genes has been conserved between rice and tobacco. Most ORFs extensively conserved betweenN. tabacum andM. polymorpha are also conserved intact in rice. However, several such ORFs are entirely absent in rice, or present only in severely truncated form. Structural changes are also apparent in the genome relative to tobacco. The inverted repeats, characteristic of chloroplast genome structure, have expanded outward to include several genes present only once per genome in tobacco and liverwort and the large single copy region has undergone a series of inversions which predate the divergence of the cereals. A chimeric tRNA pseudogene overlaps an apparent endpoint of the largest inversion, and a model invoking illegitimate recombination between tRNA genes is proposed which accounts simultaneously for the origin of this pseudogene, the large inversion and the creation of repeated sequences near the inversion endpoints.  相似文献
4.
Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: tempo and mode of evolution   总被引:96,自引:0,他引:96  
Summary We cloned and sequenced a segment of mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon. This segment is 896 bp in length, contains the genes for three transfer RNAs and parts of two proteins, and is homologous in all 5 primates. The 5 sequences differ from one another by base substitutions at 283 positions and by a deletion of one base pair. The sequence differences range from 9 to 19% among species, in agreement with estimates from cleavage map comparisons, thus confirming that the rate of mtDNA evolution in primates is 5 to 10 times higher than in nuclear DNA. The most striking new finding to emerge from these comparisons is that transitions greatly outnumber transversions. Ninety-two percent of the differences among the most closely related species (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) are transitions. For pairs of species with longer divergence times, the observed percentage of transitions falls until, in the case of comparisons between primates and non-primates, it reaches a value of 45. The time dependence is probably due to obliteration of the record of transitions by multiple substitutions at the same nucleotide site. This finding illustrates the importance of choosing closely related species for analysis of the evolutionary process. The remarkable bias toward transitions in mtDNA evolution necessitates the revision of equations that correct for multiple substitutions at the same site. With revised equations, we calculated the incidence of silent and replacement substitutions in the two protein-coding genes. The silent substitution rate is 4 to 6 times higher than the replacement rate, indicating strong functional constraints at replacement sites. Moreover, the silent rate for these two genes is about 10% per million years, a value 10 times higher than the silent rate for the nuclear genes studied so far. In addition, the mean substitution rate in the three mitochondrial tRNA genes is at least 100 times higher than in nuclear tRNA genes. Finally, genealogical analysis of the sequence differences supports the view that the human lineage branched off only slightly before the gorilla and chimpanzee lineages diverged and strengthens the hypothesis that humans are more related to gorillas and chimpanzees than is the orangutan.Abbreviations mtDNA mitochondrial DNA - bp base pair - URF unidentified reading frame  相似文献
5.
DNA序列在植物系统学研究中的应用   总被引:62,自引:6,他引:56  
植物DNA序列由于进化速率上的差异而适用于不同分类阶元的系统发育研究,因此,针对某一特定的系统学问题选择相应合适的分子片段是分子系统学研究中最为关键的一步。在前人研究的基础上,主要讨论了目前分子系统发育和进化研究中一些常用的DNA序列的适用范围,包括nrDNA的18S基因及ITS等非编码区,cpDNA的编码基因(rbcI、matK、ndhF、atpB)及非编码区序列(rpL16、rpoC1、rps16、trnL-F和trnT-L)和应用较少的mtDNA。研究表明,18S、rbcI等编码基因及mtDNA一般适用于较高分类阶元甚至整个种子植物谱系间的系统发育的探讨,而ITS及cpDNA的非编码区序列等因其较快的进化速率多用于较低分类阶元的系统关系研究。  相似文献
6.
Survey of plant short tandem DNA repeats   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
Length variations in simple sequence tandem repeats are being given increased attention in plant genetics. Some short tandem repeats (STRs) from a few plant species, mainly those at the dinucleotide level, have been demonstrated to show polymorphisms and Mendelian inheritance. In the study reported here a search for all of the possible STRs ranging from mononucleotide up to tetranucleotide repeats was carried out on EMBL and GenBank DNA sequence databases of 3026 kb nuclear DNA and 1268 kb organelle DNA in 54 and 28 plant species (plus algae), respectively. An extreme rareness of STRs (4 STRs in 1268 kb DNA) was detected in organelle compared with nuclear DNA sequences. In nuclear DNA sequences, (AT)n sequences were the most abundant followed by (A)n · (T)n, (AG)n · (CT)n, (AAT)n · (ATT)n, (AAC)n · (GTT), (AGC)n · (GCT)n, (AAG)n · (CTT)n, (AATT)n · (TTAA)n, (AAAT)n · (ATTT)n and (AC)n · (GT)n sequences. A total of 130 STRs were found, including 49 (AT)n sequences in 31 species, giving an average of 1 STR every 23.3 kb and 1 (AT)n STR every 62 kb. An abundance comparable to that for the dinucleotide repeat was observed for the tri- and tetranucleotide repeats together. On average, there was 1 STR every 64.6 kb DNA in monocotyledons versus 1 every 21.2 kb DNA in dicotyledons. The fraction of STRs that contained G-C basepairs increased as the G+C contents went up from dicotyledons, monocotyledons to algae. While STRs of mono-, di- and tetranucleotide repeats were all located in non coding regions, 57% of the trinucleotide STRs containing G-C basepairs resided in coding regions.  相似文献
7.
Estimating the pattern of nucleotide substitution   总被引:42,自引:0,他引:42  
Knowledge of the pattern of nucleotide substitution is important both to our understanding of molecular sequence evolution and to reliable estimation of phylogenetic relationships. The method of parsimony analysis, which has been used to estimate substitution patterns in real sequences, has serious drawbacks and leads to results difficult to interpret. In this paper a model-based maximum likelihood approach is proposed for estimating substitution patterns in real sequences. Nucleotide substitution is assumed to follow a homogeneous Markov process, and the general reversible process model (REV) and the unrestricted model without the reversibility assumption are used. These models are also applied to examine the adequacy of the model of Hasegawa et al. (J. Mol. Evol. 1985;22:160–174) (HKY85). Two data sets are analyzed. For the -globin pseudogenes of six primate species, the REV model fits the data much better than HKY85, while, for a segment of mtDNA sequences from nine primates, REV cannot provide a significantly better fit than HKY85 when rate variation over sites is taken into account in the models. It is concluded that the use of the REV model in phylogenetic analysis can be recommended, especially for large data sets or for sequences with extreme substitution patterns, while HKY85 may be expected to provide a good approximation. The use of the unrestricted model does not appear to be worthwhile.  相似文献
8.
9.
The genetic effects of pleistocene ice ages are approached by deduction from paleoenvironmental information, by induction from the genetic structure of populations and species, and by their combination to infer likely consequences. (1) Recent palaeoclimatic information indicate rapid global reversals and changes in ranges of species which would involve elimination with spreading from the edge. Leading edge colonization during a rapid expansion would be leptokurtic and lead to homozygosity and spatial assortment of genomes. In Europe and North America, ice age contractions were into southern refugia, which would promote genome reorganization. (2) The present day genetic structure of species shows frequent geographic subdivision, with parapatric genomes, hybrid zones and suture zones. A survey of recent DNA phylogeographic information supports and extends earlier work. (3) The grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus is used to illustrate such data and processes. Its range in Europe is divided on DNA sequences into five parapatric races, with southern genomes showing greater haplotype diversity - probably due to southern mountain blocks acting as refugia and northern expansion reducing diversity. (4) Comparison with other recent studies shows a concordance of such phylogeographic data over pleistocene time scales. (5) The role that ice age range changes may have played in changing adaptations is explored, including the limits of range, rapid change in new invasions and refugial differentiation in a variety of organisms. (6) The effects of these events in causing divergence and speciation are explored using Chorthippus as a paradigm. Repeated contraction and expansion would accumulate genome differences and adaptations, protected from mixing by hybrid zones, and such a composite mode of speciation could apply to many organisms.  相似文献
10.
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