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1.
DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, we assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in the rice genome, using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), which is a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method that makes use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of isoschizomers to cytosine methylation. The tissues assayed included seedlings and flag leaves of an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63, and the parental lines Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. In all, 1076 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 195 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in one or both parents, and the two parents showed approximately the same overall degree of methylation (16.3%), as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion by the isoschizomers. Four classes of patterns were identified in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation in the parents and hybrid; increased methylation was detected in the hybrid compared to the parents at some of the recognition sites, while decreased methylation in the hybrid was detected at other sites. A small proportion of the sites was found to be differentially methylated in seedlings and flag leaves; DNA from young seedlings was methylated to a greater extent than that from flag leaves. Almost all of the methylation patterns detected by MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrate that the MSAP technique is highly efficient for large-scale detection of cytosine methylation in the rice genome. We believe that the technique can be adapted for use in other plant species. Received: 23 October 1998 / Accepted: 11 January 1999  相似文献
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Epigenetic aspects of somaclonal variation in plants   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
Somaclonal variation is manifested as cytological abnormalities, frequent qualitative and quantitative phenotypic mutation, sequence change, and gene activation and silencing. Activation of quiescent transposable elements and retrotransposons indicate that epigenetic changes occur through the culture process. Epigenetic activation of DNA elements further suggests that epigenetic changes may also be involved in cytogenetic instability through modification of heterochromatin, and as a basis of phenotypic variation through the modulation of gene function. The observation that DNA methylation patterns are highly variable among regenerated plants and their progeny provides evidence that DNA modifications are less stable in culture than in seed-grown plants. Future research will determine the relative importance of epigenetic versus sequence or chromosome variation in conditioning somaclonal variation in plants.  相似文献
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The tomato nuclear genome was determined to have a G+C content of 37% which is among the lowest reported for any plant species. Non-coding regions have a G+C content even lower (32% average) whereas coding regions are considerably richer in G+C (46%).5-methyl cytosine was the only modified base detected and on average 23% of the cytosine residues are methylated. Immature tissues and protoplasts have significantly lower levels of cytosine methylation (average 20%) than mature tissues (average 25%). Mature pollen has an intermediate level of methylation (22%). Seeds gave the highest value (27%), suggesting de novo methylation after pollination and during seed development.Based on isoschizomer studies we estimate 55% of the CpG target sites (detected by Msp I/Hpa II) and 85% of the CpNpG target sites (detected by Bst NI/Eco RI)are methylated. Unmethylated target sites (both CpG and CpNpG) are not randomly distributed throughout the genome, but frequently occur in clusters. These clusters resemble CpG islands recently reported in maize and tobacco.The low G+C content and high levels of cytosine methylation in tomato may be due to previous transitions of 5mCT. This is supported by the fact that G+C levels are lowest in non-coding portions of the genome in which selection is relaxed and thus transitions are more likely to be tolerated. This hypothesis is also supported by the general deficiency of methylation target sites in the tomato genome, especially in non-coding regions.Using methylation isoschizomers and RFLP analysis we have also determined that polymorphism between plants, for cytosine methylation at allelic sites, is common in tomato. Comparing DNA from two tomato species, 20% of the polymorphisms detected by Bst NI/Eco RII could be attributed to differential methylation at the CpNpG target sites. With Msp I/Hpa II, 50% of the polymorphisms were attributable to methylation (CpG and CpNpG sites). Moreover, these polymorphisms were demonstrated to be inherited in a mendelian fashion and to co-segregate with the methylation target site and thus do not represent variation for transacting factors that might be involved in methylation of DNA. The potential role of heritable methylation polymorphism in evolution of gene regulation and in RFLP studies is discussed.  相似文献
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RNA-directed DNA methylation   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
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镉胁迫下萝卜基因组DNA甲基化敏感扩增多态性分析   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
应用甲基化敏感扩增多态性(MSAP)技术分析了重金属镉(cd)胁迫处理后萝卜基因组DNA甲基化程度的变化。结果表明,经50、250和500mg/L CdCl_2处理后,MSAP比率分别为37%、43%和51%,均高于对照(34%);全甲基化率(双链C~mCGG)分别为23%、25%和27%,而其对照为22%,表明重金属CdCl_2胁迫后,某些位点发生了重新甲基化。萝卜叶片DNA中总甲基化水平的增加与CdCl_2处理浓度呈显著正相关。甲基化变异可分为重新甲基化、去甲基化、不定类型以及与对照相同的甲基化模式等类型,Cd胁迫处理引起的植株基因组DNA甲基化程度的提高主要是重新甲基化。  相似文献
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植物体细胞无性系变异的细胞学和分子生物学研究进展   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
植物体细胞无性系变异是植物组织培养中的普遍现象,关于这些变异的起源存在多种观点,如转座因子的活化、DNA甲基化等。本文综述了植物体细胞无性系的研究进展,从细胞学和分子生物学两个层次对无性系变异的起源进行了讨论  相似文献
10.
Ten years of AFLP in ecology and evolution: why so few animals?   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
Bensch S  Akesson M 《Molecular ecology》2005,14(10):2899-2914
Researchers in the field of molecular ecology and evolution require versatile and low-cost genetic typing methods. The AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) method was introduced 10 years ago and shows many features that fulfil these requirements. With good quality genomic DNA at hand, it is relatively easy to generate anonymous multilocus DNA profiles in most species and the start-up time before data can be generated is often less than a week. Built-in dynamic, yet simple modifications make it possible to find a protocol suitable to the genome size of the species and to screen thousands of loci in hundreds of individuals for a relatively low cost. Until now, the method has primarily been applied in studies of plants, bacteria and fungi, with a strong bias towards economically important cultivated species and their pests. In this review we identify a number of research areas in the study of wild species of animals where the AFLP method, presently very much underused, should be a very valuable tool. These aspects include classical problems such as studies of population genetic structure and phylogenetic reconstructions, and also new challenges such as finding markers for genes governing adaptations in wild populations and modifications of the protocol that makes it possible to measure expression variation of multiple genes (cDNA-AFLP) and the distribution of DNA methylation. We hope this review will help molecular ecologists to identify when AFLP is likely to be superior to other more established methods, such as microsatellites, SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analyses and multigene DNA sequencing.  相似文献
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