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1.
Mitochondrial DNA sequences are often used to construct molecular phylogenetic trees among closely related animals. In order to examine the usefulness of mtDNA sequences for deep-branch phylogenetics, genes in previously reported mtDNA sequences were analyzed among several animals that diverged 20–600 million years ago. Unambiguous alignment was achieved for stem-forming regions of mitochondrial tRNA genes by virtue of their conservative secondary structures. Sequences derived from stem parts of the mitochondrial tRNA genes appeared to accumulate much variation linearly for a long period of time: nearly 100 Myr for transition differences and more than 350 Myr for transversion differences. This characteristic could be attributed, in part, to the structural variability of mitochondrial tRNAs, which have fewer restrictions on their tertiary structure than do nonmitochondrial tRNAs. The tRNA sequence data served to reconstruct a well-established phylogeny of the animals with 100% bootstrap probabilities by both maximum parsimony and neighbor joining methods. By contrast, mitochondrial protein genes coding for cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I did not reconstruct the established phylogeny or did so only weakly, although a variety of fractions of the protein gene sequences were subjected to tree-building. This discouraging phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial protein genes, especially with respect to branches originating over 300 Myr ago, was not simply due to high randomness in the data. It may have been due to the relative susceptibility of the protein genes to natural selection as compared with the stem parts of mitochondrial tRNA genes. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that mitochondrial tRNA genes may be useful in resolving deep branches in animal phylogenies with divergences that occurred some hundreds of Myr ago. For this purpose, we designed a set of primers with which mtDNA fragments encompassing clustered tRNA genes were successfully amplified from various vertebrates by the polymerase chain reaction.Abbreviations AA stem amino acid-acceptor stem - AC stem anticodon stem - COI cytochrome oxidase subunit I - cytb cytochrome b - D stem dihydrouridine stem - MP maximum parsimony - mtDNA mitochondrial DNA - Myr million years - NJ neighbor joining - PCR polymerase chain reaction - Ti transition - T stem tC stem - Tv transversion Correspondence to: Y. Kumazawa  相似文献
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To clarify the relationship among coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods, the amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes were compared. The phylogenetic tree of these animals, including the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae and the lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa, was inferred by several methods. These analyses consistently indicate a coelacanth/lungfish clade, to which little attention has been paid by previous authors with the exception of some morphologists. Overall evidence of other mitochondrial genes reported previously and the results of this study equally support the coelacanth/lungfish and lungfish/tetrapod clades, ruling out the coelacanth/tetrapod clade.Correspondence to: K. Watanabe 0592  相似文献
3.
粤东海域口虾蛄遗传多样性   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
采用线粒体COⅠ基因序列对粤东汕尾和深圳2个海域口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)的遗传多样性进行了分析。研究表明,所分析的口虾蛄mtDNA COⅠ基因(592 bp)共检测到21个变异位点,占总位点的3.55%。转换和颠换位点数分别为18和3个,碱基替换的饱和性分析表明,口虾蛄COⅠ基因碱基替换未达到饱和,COⅠ基因适合作为分析口虾蛄遗传多样性研究的分子标记。所检测的个体一共有15个单倍型,单倍型多样性为0.971,核苷酸多样性为0.007 55。单倍型之间的遗传距离在0.047 6~0.428 6之间,平均遗传距离为0.214 1。两群体间遗传分化系数FST为0.036,群体单倍型之间的UPGAM聚类以及NETWORK亲缘关系网状图并未显示明显的地理聚类结果。粤东海域口虾蛄总体遗传多样性水平较高,遗传分化小。  相似文献
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The distribution of Octopus vulgaris has not yet been completely clarified. For a long time, a cosmopolitan distribution with unknown distribution limits had been assumed. This assumption has recently been questioned and it has been postulated that the distribution is restricted to the Mediterranean and the northeastern Atlantic. However, as our previous studies show, the existence of O. vulgaris can be confirmed for the Mediterranean and the whole eastern Atlantic, and evidence is provided for its occurrence in the western Atlantic. The aim of the present work is to extend our previous data matrix and to clarify whether O. vulgaris exists in the northwestern Pacific. Therefore, the sequence variation in ostensible O. vulgaris from 13 localities in the Mediterranean (France), the Atlantic Ocean [Lanzarote, Senegal, South Africa (Atlantic, Indian Ocean), Tristan da Cunha, north, middle and south Brazil], the Caribbean Sea (Venezuela) and the Pacific Ocean (Taiwan, Japan and Costa Rica) was examined using the mitochondrial genes coding for the 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit III (COIII). Sequence divergence was relatively low between populations of O. vulgaris from the Mediterranean, the eastern and western Atlantic (except north Brazil), Venezuela, Taiwan and Japan compared with other species of the genus Octopus . Trees constructed by using maximum likelihood, neighbour joining and maximum parsimony algorithms (PAUP) show the above-mentioned populations from the Mediterranean, the western and eastern Atlantic, Venezuela and the northwestern Pacific (Japan and Taiwan) as a monophyletic cluster. Thus, even if the Octopus vulgaris -like octopus from north Brazil should turn out a cryptic species, the data of this work not only support our hypothesis of the distribution of O. vulgaris in the Mediterranean, the eastern and western Atlantic but also show that O. vulgaris is present in the northwestern Pacific, namely in the waters of Taiwan and Japan.  相似文献
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Morphologic and phylogenetic analysis of freshwater sponges endemic to lakes in Central Sulawesi, Siberia and South-East Europe is presented. We also analyzed several cosmopolitan sponge species from Eurasia and North America and included sponge sequences from public databases. In agreement with previous reports [Addis, J.S., Peterson, K.J., 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of freshwater sponges (Porifera, Spongillina) inferred from analyses of 18S rDNA, COI mtDNA, and ITS2 rDNA sequences. Zool. Scr. 34, 549-557], the metaniid sponge Corvomeyenia sp. was the most deeply branching species within a monophyletic lineage of the suborder Spongillina. Pachydictyum globosum (Malawispongiidae) and Nudospongilla vasta (Spongillidae), two morphologically quite distinct species from Sulawesi were found in a joint clade with Trochospongilla (Spongillidae) rendering Trochospongilla paraphyletic. Furthermore, Ochridaspongia sp., another Malawispongiidae, clustered far away from that clade, together with Ephydatia fluviatilis, making the latter family polyphyletic. The Lubomirskiidae endemic to Lake Baikal, Lubomirskia abietina, Baikalospongia bacillifera, B. intermedia, and Swartschewskia papyracea formed a well-supported clade that was most closely linked to the genus Ephydatia (99.9% identity over a total length of 2169 concatenated nucleotide positions). Our study indicates the frequent and independent origin of sponge species endemic to different freshwater ecosystems from a few cosmopolitan founder species. The highly specific primer sets newly developed here facilitate work on the molecular phylogeny and DNA barcoding of sponges.  相似文献
8.
The butterfly Pieris napi (L.) and relatives exemplify recently evolving taxa, exhibiting variation that makes their evolutionary dynamics interesting, but their systematics difficult. Wing-pattern characters commonly used to distinguish these Holarctic insects display both genetic polymorphism and environmentally-cued polyphenism. Often, these causes of variation are confounded, impairing the characters' phylogenetic usefulness. DNA sequences of four mitochondrial genes offer an independent view of pierine phylogeny. Sampling diverse relatives within family Pieridae assists resolution of the P. napi complex, suggests previous underestimation of clade diversity in subfamily Pierinae, and shows that other genera near Pieris also display confusions of wing-pattern-based phylogenetic inference. The European P. napi is sister to all North American taxa, and is well diverged from them all in sequences. The North American taxa comprise a northern subclade including Pieris oleracea , and questionably distinct Pieris ' angelika ', and a southern subclade including distinct Pieris virginiensis , Pieris marginalis , and Pieris macdunnoughii , and other regional entities yet to be clarified. Weak bootstrap support for some nodes in this group arises from a closeness of sequence identity rather than character conflict; more sequence data and denser geographical sampling may resolve these nodes more clearly. Evidence of reproductive isolation, from other experimental hybridization studies, agrees with the DNA results where these conflict with other divergent character sets. The system offers much promise for a deeper understanding of character evolution in relation to phyletic differentiation.  © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2006, 88 , 413–435.  相似文献
9.
The green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a complex of cryptic species whose differentiation has been so far based upon morphology, ecophysiology, behaviour and preliminary mitochondrial DNA data using cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit II. In this work we extended the DNA data by screening nucleotide sequences of COII, cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b and the large ribosomal subunit of the mtDNA. These new data suggest that C. carnea s.s. is a well-supported, separate taxon, but that other taxa of the complex are not consistently differentiated by the current DNA data.  相似文献
10.
We examined phylogenetic relationships among halobatine water striders (Hemiptera, Gerridae) using molecular and morphological data. The molecular data set was 780 bp DNA sequence data from the 3' half of the mitochondria! gene encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I from 19 species of sea skaters, Halobates , and one species from each of three related genera, Asclepios annandalei, Austrobates rivularis , and Eurymetra natalensis. The morphological data set was a slightly modified version of a previously published data set. Unweighted parsimony analyses of the molecular data set gave one tree with weak support for most branches. Maximum likelihood analysis of the same data set gave a tree with slightly different topology, but reveiled many of the clades found in parsimony analyses of the morphological data set. Parsimony analyses of the combined molecular + morphology data sets gave a better resolved and better supported tree than did analyses of any single data set. The phytogeny of Halobates presented here allows a more rigorous evaluation of several prior hypotheses about evolutionary processes in marine water striders. In particular, it supports the hypothesis of at least two separate transitions from coastal to oceanic environments.  相似文献
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