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An insect neuropeptide leucopyrokinin (LPK) (pQTSFTPRLamide) accelerates pupariation in wandering larvae of the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata. The period of sensitivity to the action of LPK begins approximately 4 h before pupariation. Within this period the degree of acceleration of contraction into the shape of a puparium is practically independent of the age at which the larvae are injected, while acceleration of tanning is distinctly more age dependent. From ligation experiments we conclude that intact central innervation is essential for the action of LPK on puparial contraction, whereas central neurones take no part in mediation of LPK action on tanning of the cuticle. An analysis of tensiometric recordings of muscular activity revealed that the actual time of LPK accelerated puparial contraction coincides with the beginning of the immobilisation/retraction phase. LPK accelerates the switch from wandering behaviour to immobilisation/retraction behaviour but has no effect on the onset and duration of motor patterns that normally underlie puparial contraction in controls. The morphology of an accelerated puparium is normal but its formation is temporally dissociated from normal ‘contraction patterns’ that are performed a long time after the puparium has contracted. It means that neuromuscular activity of larvae accelerated by LPK does not cease upon formation of the white puparium, but continues until the whole motor programme of pupariation behaviour is completed. Apparently the peptide acts on the integument by stimulating it to contract and shrink, and no specific patterns of muscular contractions are needed to properly shape the puparium. This finding sheds a new light on our understanding of the mechanism of puparium formation.  相似文献
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Detailed structure of the male genitalia of Anevrina is described. Hitherto unknown morphological characters of the internal sclerites relating to the epandrium and hypandrium are illustrated and elucidated. The subepandrial sclerite + bacilliform sclerites are distinctly modified, and the typical subepandrial sclerite is not recognizable. The right base of the medially shifted right surstylus is not connected to the posterior margin of the epandrium, and is directly supported by a robust bacilliform sclerite. The robust bacilliform sclerites are greatly developed inside the epandrium, and extended to three clasping components, the left surstylus, the medially shifted right surstylus and a pair of clasping lobes on the posteroventral margin of the right side of the epandrium. The upper lobe of a pair of clasping lobes on the right side of the epandrium is considered to originally have been situated on the left side and subsequently shifted to the right side. The plesiomorphic state of the clasping components relative to Anevrina is thought to be symmetrically four, comprising both the left and right surstyli and the posterior edge of both sides of the epandrium, indicating that the amazing phenomenon of cross-shifting of the clasping components has occurred in Anevrina. A cladogram generated based on the genitalic characters observed in this study shows sister groups within Anevrina, namely an Anevrina urbana-group comprised of A. urbana, A. setigera, A. olympiae, A. variabilis, A. thoracica, and an Anevrina unispinosa-group comprised of A. unispinosa, A. curvinervis, A. luggeri and A. macateei.  相似文献
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