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1.
Phylogeographic patterns in widespread corvid birds   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Intraspecific genetic diversity and phylogeography of Corvus corone was investigated using the mitochondrial (mt) control region as a molecular marker. A split into two distinct mt lineages was observed. One represents individuals from a wide geographic range spanning from England to the Russian Far East (Kamchatka), while the other one was found in the Primorye and Khabarovsk regions (southern parts of Russian Far East) as well as Japan. For comparison, we investigated several widespread Palearctic corvid taxa with respect to their phylogeographic patterns. A deep split into two lineages was revealed in five cases: Besides C. corone, within Corvus frugilegus, Pica pica, and between the species pairs Corvus monedula-Corvus dauuricus and Cyanopica cyanus-Cyanopica cooki. Although these taxa display a variety of distribution patterns, from disjunct, para/allopatric to continuous, the genetic pattern and level of divergence between clades is very similar. This implies that the differentiation started in about the same time range. In contrast, no differentiation into highly divergent lineages was detected in Corvus corax, Perisoreus infaustus, and Nucifraga caryocatactes. We try to explain the two phylogeographic patterns in corvid birds with ecological factors accompanying the changing climatic conditions during the Pleistocene. The deep genetic splits within several widely distributed Palearctic corvids are discussed with respect to taxonomic questions.  相似文献
2.
Summary The study compares mensural differences between various species of European corvids in all major skeletal elements. It appears that the greatest differences are found in the bill and mandible, which may reflect adaptations to various foods and feeding methods. Substantiation of this supposition, however, calls for further studies.
Relative Differenzierung der Skelettelemente bei europäischen Corviden
Zusammenfassung Ein morphometrischer Vergleich europäischer Corviden-Arten nach allen wichtigen Skelettmerkmalen zeigt, dass die größten Unterschiede zwischen den Arten im Ober- und Unterschnabelbau bestehen. Dies wird als Anpassungen an verschiedene Nahrung und Ernährungsmethoden erklärt. Diese Vermutung erfordert jedoch noch weitere Untersuchungen.
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3.
Food hoarding and memory have primarily been studied in two bird families, the Corvidae (crows, jays, nutcrackers, etc.) and the Paridae (tits, titmice and chickadees). In both families there are species that hoard large quantities of seeds and nuts in the autumn and depend on these stores during the winter. Caches are concealed or highly inconspicuous and the most efficient way to retrieve them is to remember the exact locations. However, a long-term memory for a large number of caches may be physiologically expensive, and especially after long retention intervals, an alternative strategy could be to retrieve caches by cheaper but less efficient methods. Very few studies have been designed to investigate the decay of the memory in birds, but both field observations and experiments point in the same direction: although long-term hoarding corvids seem to possess an accurate long-term memory, long-term hoarding parids do not appear to. I discuss possible reasons for this and suggest that differences between the families in their degree of dependence on stored food or/and size-related limitations of brain capacity may be important.  相似文献
4.
To study the evolution of mtDNA and the intergeneric relationships of New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae), we sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) from 21 species representing all genera of New World jays, an Old World jay, crows, and a magpie. Using maximum likelihood methods, we found that both the transition/transversion ratio (κ) and among site rate variation (α) were higher in flanking domains I and II than in the conserved central domain and that the frequency of indels was highest in domain II. Estimates of κ and α were much more influenced by the density of taxon sampling than by alternative optimal tree topologies. We implemented a successive approximation method incorporating these parameters into phylogenetic analysis. In addition we compared our study in detail to a previous study using cytochrome b and morphology to examine the effect of taxon sampling, evolutionary rates of genes, and combined data on tree resolution. We found that the particular weighting scheme used had no effect on tree topology and little effect on tree robustness. Taxon sampling had a significant effect on tree robustness but little effect on the topology of the best tree. The CR data set differed nonsignificantly from the tree derived from the cytochrome b/morphological data set primarily in the placement of the genus Gymnorhinus, which is near the base of the CR tree. However, contrary to conventional taxonomy, the CR data set suggested that blue and black jays (Cyanocorax sensu lato) might be paraphyletic and that the brown jay Psilorhinus (=Cyanocorax) morio is the sister group to magpie jays (Calocitta), a phylogenetic hypothesis that is likely as parsimonious with regard to nonmolecular characters as monophyly of Cyanocorax. The CR tree also suggests that the common ancestor of NWJs was likely a cooperative breeder. Consistent with recent systematic theory, our data suggest that DNA sequences with high substitution rates such as the CR may nonetheless be useful in reconstructing relatively deep phylogenetic nodes in avian groups. Received: 10 November 1999 / Accepted: 16 March 2000  相似文献
5.
Individuals foraging in groups should develop behavioural tactics to optimise their gain. In novel feeding situations, predation risk and pressure of kleptoparasites may be particularly high and hence may constrain optimal foraging. To create a novel feeding situation, we offered common ravens (Corvus corax) equal numbers of either small (40 g) or large (160 g) pieces of meat on successive days, always in combination with the same novel object. During the first weeks, when ravens were still neophobic, small pieces were taken in larger numbers than large pieces. Intraspecific kleptoparasitism was more likely to occur when ravens carried large food items. It seems that initiating foragers were mainly innovative subdominants. Preference for small items might have decreased with increasing habituation because more dominants were then feeding directly at the source and hence were less likely to resort to kleptoparasitism as an alternative foraging tactic. Electronic Publication  相似文献
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Many bird species adjust their offspring sex ratio as a response to environmental conditions or sexual dimorphism in size and dispersal. Offspring sex ratios may therefore vary among populations depending on the different demographic and ecological trajectories. We sampled Common Raven Corvus corax nestlings close to the fledging stage from three Central European regions to test for skewed secondary sex ratios and to investigate differences in sex ratios between populations that differ in recent recolonization history and breeding densities. Between 2005 and 2007, a total of 108 broods with 335 nestlings were sampled and their sex determined using molecular methods. We observed a mean of 3.1 (±1.2) nestlings per brood with no differences among nesting sites, years or regions. Nestling sex ratios were independent of the number of siblings. The overall secondary sex ratio was close to parity and did not differ between the variably structured populations.  相似文献
8.
Since it was first detected in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) quickly spread, becoming the dominant vector-borne disease in North America. Sometimes fatal to humans, WNV is even more widespread among birds, with hundreds of species known to be susceptible to WNV infection in North America alone. However, despite considerable mortality and local declines observed in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), there has been little evidence of a large regional association between WNV susceptibility and population declines of any species. Here we demonstrate a correlation between susceptibility to WNV measured by large-scale testing of dead birds and two indices of overall population change among bird species following the spread of WNV throughout California. This result was due primarily to declines in four species of Corvidae, including all species in this family except common ravens (Corvus corax). Our results support the hypothesis that susceptibility to WNV may have negative population consequences to most corvids on regional levels. They also provide confirmation that dead animal surveillance programs can provide important data indicating populations most likely to suffer detrimental impacts due to WNV.  相似文献
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10.
Predation is one of the most selective forces in evolution and, thus, predation may select against hybrids in narrow hybrid zones. It may be possible that parental phenotypes and hybrids differ in their responses towards predators or humans. As predation is difficult to observe I used flight-initiation distance (FID) as a metric of risk assessment. FID is a measurable outcome of the trade-off between fleeing and remaining. Here, I tested whether hybrid and parent crow phenotypes (Corvus corone, Corvus cornix) from the hybrid zone in Eastern Germany differ in their FID. Further, I measured many environmental and social variables to control statistically for their influence on FID. I sampled 154 individuals (53 hooded crows, 54 carrion crows, and 48 hybrids) in the hybrid zone in eastern Germany. I calculated a general linear model using a stepwise backward procedure to establish a minimum model containing only significant variables that explained FID in crows. The variable phenotype (hooded, carrion, hybrid) was then added to the model. There were no differences in FID between hybrids and both parental phenotypes types, suggesting similar risk assessment. This suggests that hybrids may behave similarly in their decision to flee as their parent phenotypes, which, in turn, provides no evidence for a selective disadvantage. An additional analysis focusing on pure phenotypic flocks showed that hybrids in pure hybrid flocks had a lower FID than both parental species in pure flocks. This suggests that hybrids in pure hybrid flocks may be at a disadvantage.  相似文献
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