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Host of brood parasites increase the ability of rejecting cuckooeggs by production of (1) a clutch with little variation amongeggs and (2) a clutch that differs the most from the modal phenotypeof the population. These hypotheses have been tested by Øienet at. (1995), although they did not control for common phylogeneticancestry. We analyze the evolution of egg color and markingpatterns in European passerines, which are potential hosts ofdie European cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), using Felsenstein's (1985)independent comparative method to control for the effect ofcommon phylogenetic descent We found a significant positiverelationship between interclutch variation in appearance ofhost eggs and parasitism rate, but this relationship disappearedwhen hole-nesting species were excluded from the analysis; andwe found a highly significant multiple regression between rejectionrate and intra- and interclutch variation in egg appearance,even when hole nesters were excluded from the analysis. Thepartial correlation coefficients were negative for intraclutchvariation and positive with interclutch variation in agreementwidi the hypotheses. Therefore, the use of the independent comparativemethod strengthens the hypothesis that the evolution of eggpatterns in hosts is associated with different stages of coevolutionwith the brood parasite.  相似文献
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In this article we present tentative support for predictionsderived from a spatial habitat structure hypothesis arguingthat common cuckoos Cuculus canorus, the most common obligatebrood parasite in Europe, only breed in areas where they haveaccess to vantage points in trees. Thus, species in which somepopulations breed near trees while other populations breed farther from trees have a different cuckoo—host population dynamicthan species in which all populations always breed in the vicinityof trees. Parasitism rate, mimicry of brood parasite eggs withthose of the hosts, and rejection behavior of hosts varieswith the host breeding habitat. Cuckoos are best adapted toexploit species in which some populations breed near trees while other populations breed in open areas because such hosts arenot always accessible to cuckoos, and thus gene flow amongunparasitized and parasitized populations delays the evolutionof host adaptations. Adaptive behavior in cuckoos as well asin their hosts can be predicted from the spatial habitat structurehypothesis.  相似文献
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Many passerine host species have counteracted the parasite egg mimicry in their coevolutionary arms race with the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) by evolving increased interclutch and reduced intraclutch variation in egg appearance. Such variations make it easier for hosts to recognize a foreign egg, reduce the possibility of making recognition errors, and reduce the ability of the cuckoo to mimic the eggs of a particular host. Here, we investigate if such clutch characteristics have evolved among North American passerines. We predict that due to the absence of brood parasites with egg mimicry on this continent, these passerines should (1) not show any relationship between rejection rates and intra- or interclutch variation, and (2) intraclutch variation should be lower and interclutch variation higher in European hosts exposed to cuckoo parasitism as compared to North American hosts parasitized by cowbirds. Here we present data that show support for most of these and other predictions, as well as when controlling statistically for effects of common descent. However, the effect of continent on intraclutch variation was less than predicted and we discuss a possible reason for this. All things considered, the results demonstrate that parasitism by a specialist brood parasite with egg mimicry is a powerful selective force regarding the evolution of egg characteristics in passerine birds.  相似文献
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中国大杜鹃的鸣声   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
一直以来认为广布欧洲大陆和亚洲大陆的大杜鹃 ,其鸣声在地区之间无差异 ,而分布在亚洲的大杜鹃的鸣声至今未有系统的研究报道。本文以分布在中国北部的大杜鹃指名亚种和新疆亚种的广告鸣叫为主要研究对象 ,将其与在四川和云南省分布的大杜鹃华西亚种以及分布在朝鲜、日本、俄罗斯和英格兰的大杜鹃指名亚种的广告鸣叫进行了初步比较。在中国分布的大杜鹃有五种鸣叫类型。中国所有采集地大杜鹃的广告鸣叫都由两个音节组成 ,并且与英国分布种群的广告鸣叫很相似。各地大杜鹃的领域鸣唱呈现出个体质的高度保守性和数量性状的明显差异  相似文献
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马雯  刘迺发  丁未  王亮  包新康 《四川动物》2012,31(1):74-76,2
2010年5~7月在安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区发现3巢荒漠伯劳被大杜鹃寄生,寄生率10.34%.荒漠伯劳产白色和粉红色两种颜色的卵,大杜鹃产白色寄生卵于卵色为白色的宿主巢中.寄生卵均产于6月,当月寄生率达42.86%.大杜鹃雏鸟19日龄离巢,离巢时体重66.24 g.  相似文献
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