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1.
中国常见蜚蠊种类及其为害、利用与防治的调查研究   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
吴福桢 《昆虫学报》1987,(4):430-438
 蜚蠊是昆虫纲中一个较小的目,全世界已知五千余种,中国有记载的约二百种,五十年代后期上海医学院对本地区的蜚镰作了调查报道,七十年代初国内许多地区蜚蠊为害严重,不少单位开始采制标本对它进行研究.本文对中国室内常见蜚蠊种类的鉴定、生活习性、地理分布及其传播疾病、经济意义和防治方法作了综合报道,其中包括德国小蠊的两个近似种及一个中国新纪录属、种.  相似文献
2.
以阳性噬菌体克隆为模板,通过PCR扩增出目的基因片段并克隆入T载体,经测序证实为美洲大 蠊Periplaneta americana变应原Cr PI后,将该基因亚克隆入表达载体pGEX-5X-1。美洲 大蠊变应原Cr PI在大肠杆菌中得到高效表达,但主要以包涵体形式存在于沉淀中。目的蛋白溶 于6 mol/L盐酸胍并经稀释复性后,经Glutathione SepharoseTM4B亲和层析,纯度达 90%以上。以蟑螂过敏病人血清进行免疫印迹检测,结果显示重组变应原具有良好的IgE结合活 性。  相似文献
3.
五种蜚蠊的生物学特性和综合治理   总被引:8,自引:3,他引:5  
孙耘芹  李梅  何凤琴  齐欣 《昆虫知识》2004,41(3):216-222
介绍了分布广泛和危害严重的室内 5种常见蜚蠊 ,德国小蠊、美洲大蠊、黑胸大蠊、澳洲大蠊和褐斑大蠊的生物学特性和行为习性以及德国小蠊为何能成为室内优势种的原因。蜚蠊的综合治理系统包括 :检查和调查、环境治理、非化学防治、杀虫剂防治、昆虫信息化合物和昆虫生长调节剂的防治和其它防治方法。对残留和非残留杀虫剂和剂型的基本概念和应用做了解释 ,并分别介绍了对每种蜚蠊的具体治理措施。  相似文献
4.
Bacteria of the genus Blattabacterium are intracellular symbionts that reside in specialized cells of cockroaches and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis. They appear to be obligate mutualists, and are transmitted vertically in the eggs. Such characteristics are expected to lead to equivalent phylogenies for host and symbiont, and we tested this hypothesis using recently accumulated data on relationships among termites and cockroaches and their Blattabacterium spp. Host and symbiont topologies were found to be highly similar, and various tests indicated that they were not statistically different. A close relationship between endosymbionts from termites and members of the wood-feeding cockroach genus Cryptocercus was found, supporting the hypothesis that the former evolved from subsocial, wood-dwelling cockroaches. The majority of the Blattabacterium spp. sequences appear to have undergone similar rates of evolution since their divergence from a common ancestor, and an estimate of this rate was determined based on early Cretaceous host fossils. The results support the idea that the stem group of modern cockroaches radiated sometime between the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous-not the Carboniferous, as has been suggested on the basis of roach-like fossils from this epoch.  相似文献
5.
我国家居蜚蠊细菌的研究   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
陈涛  刘嘉蓉  刘勇  童骁   《微生物学通报》1997,24(6):347-349
从我国不同地区的147头家居蜚蠊中分离获得562株细菌分属于13个属,其优势菌群属于埃希氏菌属、芽抱杆菌属、短杆菌属共422株菌,占总菌数的75.09%;其次为沙雷氏菌属、假单胞菌属共85株,占总数的15.12%;其他8个属仅43株菌,占总数的9.25%。比较了德国小蠊、美洲大蠊和黑胸大蠊及它们的体表、体腔、中肠和粪便所携带的细菌类群和数量,其结果有很大差异。该文讨论了蜚蠊细菌与人类疾病之间的关系。  相似文献
6.
呲虫啉、杀虫双对美洲蜚蠊中枢神经的电生理影响   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
 本文运用美洲蜚蠊(Periplaneta americana)第V1腹神经节突触后电位细胞外记录方法研究了吡虫啉、杀虫双对中枢神经活动的影响。结果显示:1.73x10-7mol/L吡虫啉和 1.38XlO-5Stool/L杀虫双处理后初期均能引起自发性突触后电位发放增强,随后导致突触传递阻断。而吡虫啉较杀虫双阻断传递快,且用Ringer生理溶液冲洗不易恢复,表明吡虫啉较杀虫双激动剂活性更强。以3.37×10-5mol/L甲胺磷预处理中枢神经样品后,再进行杀虫双处理,则突触后电位的发放频率和幅值有明显增强,产生连续超幅排放(overshooting)现象,相反,甲胺磷预处理对随后进行吡虫啉处理无明显影响。这些结果说明,吡虫啉、杀虫双和乙酰胆碱受体发生相互作用过程存在差异。  相似文献
7.
ABSTRACT. Recognition of Periplaneta americana (L.) oothecae by the egg parasitoid Tetrastichus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is mediated by mucopolysaccharides from the salivary glands, and calcium oxalate from the colleterial glands of the roach. Calcium oxalate, the most active compound isolated, only elicits stereotyped host recognition behaviour from the parasitoid when perceived in the context of a curved surface. Although empty oothecae contain calcium oxalate, female T. hagenowii appear to determine the unsuitability of these oothecae soon after drumming begins and abandon them. The potential usefulness of host recognition kairomones in biological control is discussed.  相似文献
8.
9.
Abstract.  Opisoplatia orientalis is an ovoviviparous cockroach living in the subtropical areas in Japan. Both adults and nymphs overwinter on Hachijo Island (33°N). The nymphs sampled before and after overwintering showed a similar pattern in frequency distribution of head widths with a definite peak of fifth instars. The present study was conducted to determine how this pattern was formed by investigating the effects of photoperiod and temperature on development and reproduction. Photoperiod influenced the number of nymphal instars, resulting in a longer duration of nymphal development at LD 12 : 12 h than at LD 16 : 8 h. However, the rate of development at each instar was only affected to a small extent by photoperiod and no sign of diapause was detected. It was suggested that the photoperiodic response controlling the number of nymphal instars might have evolved to adjust the timing of adult emergence and reproduction to the favourable season. The prereproductive period and time intervals between nymph depositions were prolonged as temperature declined, but there was no evidence for diapause in adults. Mortality occurred in eggs and embryos inside of the body of the females during winter. Thus, it was inferred that female adults would reset ovarian development in spring and deposit nymphs in summer simultaneously, and these nymphs would reach the fifth instar before winter comes. This winter mortality hypothesis was supported by experiments in which reproductive activity and mortality were monitored for field-collected adults under either constant or changing temperature conditions simulating those in the field.  相似文献
10.
Abstract.  The effects of photoperiod on nymphal growth and adult reproduction were investigated in a small cockroach, Margattea satsumana, living on the subtropical, Hachijo island (33°N), Japan. Nymphal development is slow under constant photoperiods at 25 °C. The shortest mean duration of nymphal development (176 days) is observed at LD 14 : 10 h, followed by LD 12 : 12 h (221 days) and LD 16 : 8 h (309 days). Nymphal development is further prolonged when the nymphs are transferred from LD 12 : 12 to LD 16 : 8 h at 90 days after hatching. However, rapid and synchronized development is observed when nymphs were transferred in the opposite direction. A decreased change in photoperiod from LD 14 : 10 to LD 12 : 12 h also reduces the duration of nymphal development, and this cannot be explained by the results obtained at constant photoperiods. Similarly, nymphs reared at LD 16 : 8 h during the first 60 days mature more rapidly when transferred to LD 12 : 12 h than when transferred to LD 14 : 10 h. The developmental suppression induced by long days may represent a form of summer diapause that is terminated rapidly by short days. Based on these observations and field-census data, it is suggested that this cockroach has a univoltine life cycle overwintering as nondiapause adults, and that this life cycle is stabilized by the response to changing photoperiod.  相似文献
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