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1.
无性系植物种群生态学研究进展及有关概念   总被引:74,自引:5,他引:69  
无性系植物种群生态学研究进展及有关概念刘庆钟章成(中国科学院成都生物研究所,610041)(西南师范大学生物系,重庆630715)AdvancesinEcologicalResearchofClonalPlantPopulationandSomeRe...  相似文献
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Genetic and molecular dissection of quantitative traits in rice   总被引:54,自引:0,他引:54  
Recent progress in the generation of a molecular genetic map and markers for rice has made possible a new phase of mapping individual genes associated with complex traits. This type of analysis is often referred to as quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Increasing numbers of QTL analyses are providing enormous amounts of information about QTLs, such as the numbers of loci involved, their chromosomal locations and gene effects. Clarification of genetic bases of complex traits has a big impact not only on fundamental research on rice plant development, but it also has practical benefits for rice breeding. In this review, we summarize recent progress of QTL analysis of several complex traits in rice. A strategy for positional cloning of genes at QTLs is also discussed.  相似文献
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植被对土壤微生物群落结构的影响   总被引:54,自引:6,他引:48  
研究了不同土壤及覆盖其上的植被与土壤微生物群落结构和多样性的关系.植被使土壤中的微生物种类更丰富,群落多样性更高.表层土壤微生物群落中没有明显的优势种群,种间竞争作用较弱.并介绍了研究土壤微生物群落的分子生物学方法.  相似文献
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在松嫩平原8月中旬,4个旱地生境芦苇种群分株的生长和生产力以季节性临时积水的低洼地为最高,以碱斑地为最低,两个生境之间分株高度相差2.8倍,分株生物量相差4.4倍,其它2个生境沙地和草甸混生 少也达到了显著或极显著水平,不同生境芦苇种群分株生物量分配的差异,蕴涵着重要的生长调节和物质分配策略。在分株株较小而又有充分生长空间的沙地生境和三斑生境,以及具有种间竞争的草句生境,分株将50%以上的物质分配给叶的建造上,以保证充分的物质生产;在环境条件相对较好的低洼地生境,分株将近40%的物质分配给茎的伸长生长,以提高个体对空间和光资源的竞争力。4个生境芦苇种群在分株增高与增重,以及茎、叶与分株的相对增重均具有相同的幂函数异速生长规律。  相似文献
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A B-lectin receptor kinase gene conferring rice blast resistance   总被引:50,自引:0,他引:50  
Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice worldwide. The dominant resistance gene, Pi-d2 [previously named Pi-d(t)2], present in the rice variety Digu, confers gene-for-gene resistance to the Chinese blast strain, ZB15. Pi-d2 was previously mapped close to the centromere of chromosome 6. In this study, the Pi-d2 gene was isolated by a map-based cloning strategy. Pi-d2 encodes a receptor-like kinase protein with a predicted extracellular domain of a bulb-type mannose specific binding lectin (B-lectin) and an intracellular serine-threonine kinase domain. Pi-d2 is a single-copy gene that is constitutively expressed in the rice variety Digu. Transgenic plants carrying the Pi-d2 transgene confer race-specific resistance to the M. grisea strain, ZB15. The Pi-d2 protein is plasma membrane localized. A single amino acid difference at position 441 of Pi-d2 distinguishes resistant and susceptible alleles of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2. Because of its novel extracellular domain, Pi-d2 represents a new class of plant resistance genes.  相似文献
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To solve the problem of immune incompatibility, nuclear transplantation has been envisaged as a means to produce cells or tissues for human autologous transplantation. Here we have derived embryonic stem cells by the transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes. The number of blastocysts that developed from the fused nuclear transfer was comparable among nuclear donors at ages of 5, 42, 52 and fi0 years, and nuclear transfer (NT) embryonic stem cells (ntES cells) were subsequently derived from each of the four age groups. These results suggest that human somatic nuclei can form ntES cells independent of the age of thedonor. The derived ntES cells are human based on karyotype, isogenicity, in situ hybridization, PCR and immunocytochemistry with probes that distinguish between the various species. The ntES ceils maintainthe capability of sustained growth in an undifferen tiated state, and form embryoid bodies, which, on furtherinduction, give rise to cell types such as neuron and muscle, as well as mixed cell populations that expressmarkers representative of all three germ layers. Thus, ntES cells derived from human somatic cells by NTto rabbit eggs retain phenotypes similar to those of conventional human ES ceils, including the ability toundergo multilineage cellular differentiation.  相似文献
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Large-scale EST sequencing in rice   总被引:39,自引:1,他引:38  
Large-scale cDNA analysis provides several great advantages for genome investigations in rice. Isolated and partially characterized cDNA clones have contributed not only to the construction of an RFLP linkage map and physical maps of the chromosomes but also to investigations of the mechanisms of expression of various isozymes and family genes. The ultimate aim of our large-scale cDNA analysis is to catalogue all the expressed genes of this important cereal, including tissue-specific, developmental stage-specific, and stress-specific genes. As of August 1996, the Rice Genome Research Program (RGP) has isolated and partially sequenced more than 29000 cDNA clones from various tissues and calluses in rice (Nipponbare, a japonica variety). The sequence data were translated into amino acid sequences for the 3 possible reading frames, and the similarity of these amino acid sequences to known proteins registered in PIR were examined. About 25% of the clones had significant similarities to known proteins. Some of the hit clones showed library-specific distributions, indicating that the composition of the clones in each library reflects, to some extent, the regulation of gene expression specific to differentiation, growth condition, or environmental stress. To further characterize the cDNA clones, including unknown clones, nucleotide sequence similarities of 24728 clones were analyzed and the clones were classified into around 10000 independent groups, suggesting that around a half or one third of expressed genes in rice have already been captured. These results obtained from our large-scale cDNA analysis provide useful information related to gene expression and regulation in rice.  相似文献
10.
根据样地每木栓尺和林缘扩散效应调查以及无性系跟踪挖掘材料,分析了毛乌素沙地中国沙棘无性系各上群年龄结构动态及其遗传后果,结果表明,中国沙棘无性系种群年龄结构由增长型经过稳定型发展到衰退型,在衰退的种群中,中国沙棘能够通过无性系生长实验林窗更新恢复其稳定性或依靠林缘扩散使种群在更大的空间尺度上进行自我维持。同时,随着种群的自疏,无性系种群的组成由较多拥有较少分株的无性系向较少拥有较多分株的无性系转变,从而降低了无性系种群的基株多样性。  相似文献
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