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中国圆田螺典型精子及其发生的超微结构研究   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
运用光镜和电镜以及细胞化学方法 ,对中国圆田螺Cipangopaludinachinensis典型精子及其发生的超微结构进行了研究。根据染色质和细胞形态的变化 ,可将其典型精子发生分为五个时期 :精原细胞、初级精母细胞、次级精母细胞、精细胞和成熟精子。精子发生过程中 ,线粒体逐渐增大 ,并随着轴的增生而不断发展为螺旋化线粒体系 ;染色质逐渐凝聚 ,经过颗粒化和纤维化而终呈均质 ;随着染色质的变化 ,细胞核先变小再拉长并螺旋化。精细胞期细胞核基部发生内陷 ,伴随有中心粒的移入 ,并向后方形成“9 2”式的轴。成熟典型精子单鞭毛 ,全长约 40 μm ,包括头、中、尾三段 :头段螺旋状 ,主要由细胞核构成 ,旋束单股 ;中段螺旋状 ,主要由线粒体和轴丝构成 ,旋束四股 ;尾段非螺旋状 ,主要由糖原颗粒和轴丝构成  相似文献
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  1. Ecological niche modelling is a technique used to estimate potential distributions of invasive species based on available occurrence data and associated environmental conditions. Maximum entropy (Maxent) is a powerful method for ecological niche modelling and yet has only rarely been applied to aquatic species.
  2. Here we applied Maxent to estimate the potential distribution of the invasive Chinese mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinesis) in Wisconsin and analysed several methodological issues associated with using Maxent for lentic species.
  3. To generate Maxent estimates of the potential distribution of C. chinesis, we used presence records from 292 lakes, five spatially explicit climatic variables, and two lake‐specific environmental data sets (area, conductivity) from 7995 lakes. Our investigations included three aspects that could affect model prediction accuracy and transferability: (i) combining climate and lake variables into a single data set in two different ways, using each lake as a single observation and as a grid of 1 ha cells; (ii) varying the size of the background data set (locations without presences); and (iii) contrasting environmental conditions between locations with and without C. chinesis.
  4. The lake‐based model had higher accuracy than the grid‐based model, although both models had accuracy values indicative of good performance. Conductivity and lake area were important predictor variables for both models, but had higher contribution to the lake‐based model accuracy. Decreasing the background sample size minimally affected model accuracy and thus Maxent can be used even when background sampling does not meet the algorithm's default settings. Lastly, lakes that were environmentally dissimilar from lakes with known C. chinesis records were more likely to be predicted unsuitable by both grid‐based and lake‐based models.
  5. Overall, the models predicted high potential suitability across Wisconsin lakes for C. chinesis, especially in lakes ≥60 ha. Our study provides evidence that small or environmentally biased presence data sets may underestimate the number of environmentally suitable locations of invasive species.
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In this study, we investigated the purification, preliminary characterization and immunostimulatory activity in vivo of polysaccharide from Cipangopaludina chinensis (CCPS). Firstly, crude CCPS was prepared by hot water extraction. And the crude CCPS was sequentially purified by chromatography of DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100, resulting in two purified fractions of CCPS-1 and CCPS-2. We found the two fractions were homogeneous heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of rhamnose and glucose with the average molecular weight of 226 and 235 kDa, respectively. CCPS-2 was quite different from CCPS-1. It had much higher content of uronic acid and sulfuric radical. For immunostimulatory activity in vivo, crude CCPS could significantly increase the thymus and spleen indices, enhance the macrophage function, and increase the level of serum hemolysin in cyclophosphamide-treated mice, suggesting CCPS had a potent immunostimulatory activity and could be explored as a potential natural immunomodulatory agent  相似文献
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齿舌作为软体动物独特的摄食器官,是软体动物门重要的分类特征。利用扫描电镜对入侵物种福寿螺Pomacea canaliculata、P.maculata和本地物种中国圆田螺(Cipangopaludina chinensis)的齿舌形态进行了比较观察。两种福寿螺和中国圆田螺齿式均为2·1·1·1·2。两种福寿螺齿舌的差异主要体现在中央齿的第一突起,P.canaliculata中央齿第一突起宽而短,不如P.maculata锋利。P.canaliculata与P.maculata第一突起长与中央齿宽以及第一突起宽与中央齿宽的比值均具有显著差异。两种福寿螺与中国圆田螺齿舌的中央齿、侧齿、缘齿,不论是从形态还是数量上都明显不同。两种福寿螺中央齿第一突起大而尖,呈倒三角形,两侧对称排列3个小齿;中国圆田螺的中央齿第一突起短而宽,呈方形,两侧对称排列4个小齿。两种福寿螺的侧齿大突起内侧有1个小而尖的小齿,大突起外侧另有2个小齿;中国圆田螺侧齿上缘中间大突起外侧有3个小齿,呈锯齿状。两种福寿螺的内缘齿和外缘齿相似,缘齿上缘的中间尖齿尖锐,旁边再形成一小齿;中国圆田螺内缘齿上缘的中间尖齿突出,外缘齿基部细长,上缘有小的尖齿8~10个,呈梳状。两种福寿螺与中国圆田螺的第一突起宽与中央齿宽之比、第一突起长与中央齿宽之比、第二突起宽与中央齿宽之比、第二突起长与中央齿宽之比均差异显著。食性不同可能是造成种间齿舌结构差异的原因之一。  相似文献
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罗明珠  章家恩  胡九龙  赵本良 《生态学报》2015,35(11):3580-3587
为比较福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1828))和当地中国圆田螺(Cipangopaludina chinensis (Gray, 1832))消化能力的差异,探索福寿螺成功入侵的机制,以田螺为对照,测定了1-4龄的福寿螺和田螺的胃和肝脏的消化酶-纤维素酶(羧甲基纤维素法)、淀粉酶(3,5-二硝基水杨酸法)和脂肪酶(滴定法)的活性。结果表明:1) 相同年龄的福寿螺胃和肝脏中的消化酶活性明显高于田螺。其中,纤维素酶活性分别高出1.00-2.11倍、1.66-2.84倍;淀粉酶活性分别高出1.53-3.47倍、1.47-1.80倍;脂肪酶活性分别高出2.07-4.73倍、6.13-9.93倍。2)在生长发育过程中,福寿螺胃和肝脏中的消化酶活性变化幅度(51.2%-131.2%)明显高于田螺(23.3%-47.1%)。3)福寿螺的各种消化酶之间存在协同作用。如福寿螺的淀粉酶活性与脂肪酶活性呈极显著正相关(胃中r=0.736* *、肝脏中r=0.867* *)。此外,胃中的淀粉酶活性还与纤维素酶活性呈显著正相关关系(r=0.696*)。相应地,田螺胃中的淀粉酶和脂肪酶之间也存在显著的正相关关系(r=0.706*),而肝脏中的纤维素酶与脂肪酶活性呈显著负相关(r=-0.593*)。4)福寿螺对纤维素类和淀粉类物质都有较强的消化能力,且能较好地消化脂肪类物质,而田螺能消化纤维素类和淀粉类物质,对脂肪的消化能力却很弱。福寿螺的纤维素酶和淀粉酶活性分别是田螺的2.42和1.88倍,脂肪酶活性达到了5.66倍。可见,福寿螺具有较高的消化酶活性,且各消化酶之间存在正协同性。这可能是导致福寿螺食量大、食性杂,使其能快速生长和成功入侵的重要原因之一。  相似文献
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