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1.
This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists. Whereas the previous revision was primarily to incorporate the results of ultrastructural studies, this revision incorporates results from both ultrastructural research since 1980 and molecular phylogenetic studies. We propose a scheme that is based on nameless ranked systematics. The vocabulary of the taxonomy is updated, particularly to clarify the naming of groups that have been repositioned. We recognize six clusters of eukaryotes that may represent the basic groupings similar to traditional "kingdoms." The multicellular lineages emerged from within monophyletic protist lineages: animals and fungi from Opisthokonta, plants from Archaeplastida, and brown algae from Stramenopiles.  相似文献
2.
Chemically induced anti-predator defences in plankton: a review   总被引:18,自引:8,他引:10  
Sandra Lass  Piet Spaak 《Hydrobiologia》2003,491(1-3):221-239
Planktonic organisms exhibit diverse morphological, behavioural and life-history responses to the chemical presence of potential predators. Prey organisms have been found to sense such predators via predator-derived kairomones. The induced reactions are assumed to reduce predation risk and thus to be adaptive. Numerous studies have investigated various aspects of inducible defences in different crustaceans, in rotifers, planktonic ciliates and algae. As a first step, we summarise recent work on chemically induced anti-predator defences in morphology, life history and behaviour. Morphological defences have been found in a wide range of different plankton organisms and recent studies on predator-induced morphologies mainly addressed the question of costs for these changes. Life-history responses were mainly studied in cladocerans and several studies have recently addressed some novel topics, such as diapause induction and the influence of predator kairomones on hatching of resting stages. Behavioural anti-predator defences also have been found for several plankton species and are characterised by relatively fast induction times. We further identified four research directions in which substantial progress has been made recently: (I) The effects of simultaneous exposure to infochemicals from different predators and the consequences of a complex chemical environment. Some environmental contaminants, such as synthetic chemicals or heavy metals, have been found to potentially disturb natural chemical communication in aquatic predator-prey systems. (II) The influence of genetic variation on the reaction to infochemicals and its implications. Clonal differences have not only been found for the presence or absence of a certain trait but also with respect to the type of response. (III) The degree to which different types of responses to a specific kairomone are coupled. Recent studies underline the uncoupling of different anti-predator responses of which some have been considered to be coupled. (IV) Studies on the chemical properties and on the metabolic origin of predator kairomones. Substantial progress has been made recently, especially with respect to the identification of predator kairomones that are important for planktonic ciliates. The identification and isolation of kairomones are an important step towards studies addressing the consequences of predator-induced defences on the level of populations, communities and ecosystems. So far most studies have considered effects and consequences on the level of individual prey organisms and studies taking the consequences at higher ecological levels into account are rare.  相似文献
3.
Some rumen ciliates have endosymbiotic methanogens   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Abstract Most of the small ciliate protozoa, including Dasytricha ruminantium and Entodinium spp. living in the rumen of sheep, were found to have intracellular bacteria. These bacteria were not present in digestive vacuoles. They showed characteristic coenzyme F420 autofluorescence and they were detected with a rhodamine-labelled Archaea-specific oligonucleotide probe. The measured volume percent of autofluorescing bacteria (1%) was close to the total volume of intracellular bacteria estimated from TEM stereology. Thus it is likely that all of the bacteria living in the cytoplasm of these ciliates were endosymbiotic methanogens, using H2 evolved by the host ciliate to form methane. Intracellular methanogens appear to be much more numerous than those attached to the external cell surface of ciliates.  相似文献
4.
FLUTAX法显示纤毛虫微管胞器的改良   总被引:15,自引:4,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
在参考Arregui等报道的方法的基础上,对紫杉醇荧光染色(FLUTAX)显示纤毛虫细胞微管胞器的流程进行了改进,对其中一些试剂的配方作了调整,改进了多聚赖氨酸涂布玻片、皂苷孵育、多聚甲醛固定和Triton X-100渗透等步骤。  相似文献
5.
甘肃天水麦积山风景名胜区土壤纤毛虫的物种多样性   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
用活体观察和固定染色方法对麦积山风景名胜区土壤纤毛虫物种多样性进行了研究。共鉴定到隶属于3纲12目41科55属的土壤纤毛虫115种,其中包括11个未定名种和26个中国土壤纤毛虫新纪录种。街子温泉景区、曲溪景区、麦积山石窟区、石门山和仙人崖景区各分布有47、46、44、33和26种,大弹跳虫、似织毛虫、膨大肾形虫、僧帽肾形虫、迅捷肾形虫、吻四膜虫、长刀口虫和苔藓刀口虫为广布物种。前口目和下毛目为风景名胜区土壤纤毛虫群落中的优势类群,肾形目和盾纤目为次优势类群,侧口目、吸管目和寡毛目为罕见类群。风景名胜区土壤纤毛虫物种多样性与我国已有研究报道的其他地区的均极不相似。研究结果表明,风景名胜区土壤纤毛虫物种十分丰富,特有和稀有物种繁多,群落结构复杂而特殊;土壤和水生纤毛虫群落物种组成极不相似,土壤和水生纤毛虫群落是不同的2个独立群落。  相似文献
6.
螅状独缩虫表膜下纤毛系及形态发生   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
施心路  余育和  沈韫芬 《动物学报》2001,47(1):13-18,T001,T002
利用蛋白银技术研究了螅状独缩虫无性生殖周期中的形态发生。结果表明:(1)在大核形态尚未出现明显变化时,生发毛基索(GK)的前端即出现原基,随后原基增生扩大。最早出现的是两条将来分别演化为新仔虫第三咽膜(P′3)和第二咽膜(P′2)的原基带,随后出现的是位于外侧的新仔虫的单毛基索(HK′)。同时,新仔虫的第一咽膜(P′1)也开始由老单毛基索(HK)复制,并在细胞分裂后期与老结构分离;(2)大核在虫体分裂过程中由长带状逐渐缩短变粗至扁圆形,于虫体即将分开时迅速拉长,然后分裂为二个新大核;小核分裂先于大核,在两仔虫口毛器即将分开时完成;(3)原帚胚及柄归属老仔虫,新仔虫的帚胚在虫体分裂后逐渐形成,柄内肌丝则在柄鞘形成后逐渐长出。  相似文献
7.
Abstract: Ciliated protozoa present in ten activated sludge plants at Madrid (Spain) were identified. The abundance of key groups of ciliates was determined at each plant; attached ciliates made up the most abundant and representative group. Multivariate statistical analysis was employed to study relationships between ciliates and both the physico-chemical and operational parameters of the plants. Partial correlation analysis revealed: (1) The indicator value of attached ciliates in assessing management and performance of the activated sludge process, (2) the relationship of swimming ciliates with short-aged sludges and lower quality effluents and (3) the direct association between swimming-crawling ciliates and bad settlement conditions of the sludge. Factor analysis showed the associations of the most frequent species of ciliates with the operational parameters of the plants, suggesting the indicator value of some of the species: Vorticella striata was related with poor quality of effluent; Aspidisca cicada with stable plant conditions, and Litonotus lamella with a deficiently settling sludge.  相似文献
8.
钟形钟虫形态学及表膜下纤维系统的研究   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6  
利用活体观察及蛋白银染色技术对钟形钟虫的形态学及表膜下纤维系统进行了研究,分别给出活体及蛋白银制片后标本的鉴别特征及表膜下纤维系统。本种活体鉴定主要特征为虫体呈宽钟状,细胞质不透明,镜下明显银制片后标本的鉴别特征及表膜下纤维系统,本种活体鉴定主要特征为虫体呈宽钟状,细胞质不透明,镜下明显可见有散布的脂滴存在,蛋白银制片特征为口器明显呈横位,第1(P1)和2咽膜(P2)汇合后形成的短咽膜弯曲程度较甚。纵向纤维粗壮而稀疏,40-50条;口围盘纤维网粗壮,呈轮辐状排布,相邻两轮辐外部末端多呈闭合态。第3咽膜(P3)由3排毛基索组成,其靠近P2侧的一列毛基索在P1与P3的汇合处终止,其长度只及另外两条毛基索长度的一半,故由P1和P3汇合后所组成的咽膜共由5排毛基索构成,对以上特征在分类学上的意义进行了讨论。  相似文献
9.
大鹏半岛土壤纤毛虫的群落特点   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
通过对采自广东省地岛的土壤混合样品进行纤毛虫定性和相对定量的分析,研究了大鹏半岛土培纤毛虫的群落特点,其群落由42种结毛虫组成,其中包括我国的新记录种4个;主要胡蝶形康纤虫(Cohnilembus vexillarius)、背沟肾形虫(Colpoda henneguyi)期氏肾形虫(C.steinii)、苔藓织毛虫(Histriculus musciorum)、近亲殖口虫(Gonostomum z  相似文献
10.
Molecular mechanisms of microtubular organelle assembly in Tetrahymena   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
Thanks to recent technological advances, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila has emerged as an attractive model organism for studies on the assembly of microtubular organelles in a single cell. Tetrahymena assembles 17 types of distinct microtubules, which are localized in cilia, cell cortex, nuclei, and the endoplasm. These diverse microtubules have distinct morphologies, stabilities, and associations with specific Microtubule-Associated Proteins. For example, kinesin-111, a microtubular motor protein, is required for assembly of cilia and is preferentially targeted to microtubules of actively assembled, immature cilia. It is unlikely that the unique properties of individual microtubules are derived from the utilization of diverse tubulin genes, because Tetrahymena expresses only a single isotype of alpha- and two isotypes of 1-tubulin. However, Tetrahymena tubulins are modified secondarily by a host of posttranslational mechanisms. Each microtubule organelle type displays a unique set of secondary tubulin modifications. The results of systematic in vivo mutational analyses of modification sites indicate a divergence in significance among post-translational mechanisms affecting either alpha- or beta-tubulin. Both acetylation and polyglycylation of alpha-tubulin are not essential and their complete elimination does not change the cell's phenotype in an appreciable way. However, the multiple polyglycylation sites on 1-tubulin are essential for survival, and their partial elimination dramatically affects cell motility, growth and morphology. Thus, both high-precision targeting of molecular motors to individual organelles as well as organelle-specific tubulin modifications contribute to the creation of diverse microtubules in a single cytoplasm of Tetrahymena.  相似文献
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