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1.
Bats (Order Chiroptera), the only mammals capable of powered flight and sophisticated laryngeal echolocation, represent one of the most species-rich and ubiquitous orders of mammals. However, phylogenetic relationships within this group are poorly resolved. A robust evolutionary tree of Chiroptera is essential for evaluating the phylogeny of echolocation within Chiroptera, as well as for understanding their biogeographical history. We generated 4 kb of sequence data from portions of four novel nuclear intron markers for multiple representatives of 17 of the 18 recognized extant bat families, as well as the putative bat family Miniopteridae. Three echolocation-call characters were examined by mapping them onto the combined topology: (1) high-duty cycle versus low-duty cycle, (2) high-intensity versus low-intensity call emission, and (3) oral versus nasal emission. Echolocation seems to be highly convergent, and the mapping of echolocation-call design onto our phylogeny does not appear to resolve the question of whether echolocation had a single or two origins. Fossil taxa may also provide insight into the evolution of bats; we therefore evaluate 195 morphological characters in light of our nuclear DNA phylogeny. All but 24 of the morphological characters were found to be homoplasious when mapped onto the supermatrix topology, while the remaining characters provided insufficient information to reconstruct the placement of the fossil bat taxa with respect to extant families. However, a morphological synapomorphy characterizing the Rhinolophoidea was identified and is suggestive of a separate origin of echolocation in this clade. Dispersal-Vicariance analysis together with a relaxed Bayesian clock were used to evaluate possible biogeographic scenarios that could account for the current distribution pattern of extant bat families. Africa was reconstructed as the center of origin of modern-day bat families.  相似文献
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An optimum body size for mammals? Comparative evidence from bats   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
1. The distribution of body sizes among mammalian species has been modelled by Brown, Marquet & Taper (1993), who suggest that reproductive power (the rate at which energy from the environment is channelled into offspring production) is maximized at a size of 100 g, and the observed size distribution among species reflects the way reproductive power depends on size. The model makes a testable prediction about life-history allometries: namely, that components of reproductive power should not scale linearly with body size but should change sign at the optimum size.
2. A large set of life-history data from a single clade of small mammals, the bats (Order: Chiroptera), was analysed to test this key prediction. The analyses in this study offer no support for the idea that allometries of reproductive power change sign in bats, either at 100 g or at any other size. Furthermore the life-history allometries of bats, which are mostly below the 100 g optimum, were broadly the same as in mammalian taxa larger than the optimum size.
3. These findings together contradict a key prediction of Brown et al. 's (1993) model to explain the skewed body size distribution across mammalian species.  相似文献
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兽类头骨测量标准Ⅴ:食虫目、翼手目   总被引:9,自引:7,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
本文为《兽类头骨测量标准》第五部分,在第一部分基本量度的基础上着重介绍了食虫目和翼手目各类群特有的量度及测量方法。  相似文献
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We studied the noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula), in which the mitochondrial F(ST) is about 10 times that revealed by nuclear markers, to address two questions. We first verified whether random dispersal of one sex is compatible with highly contrasted mitochondrial and nuclear population structures. Using computer simulations, we then assessed the power of multilocus population differentiation tests when the expected population structure departs only slightly from panmixia. Using an island model with sex-specific demographic parameters, we found that random male dispersal is consistent with the population structure observed in the noctule. However, other parameter combinations are also compatible with the data. We computed the minimum sex bias in dispersal (at least 69% of the dispersing individuals are males), a result that would not be available if we had used more classical population genetic models. The power of multilocus population differentiation tests was unexpectedly high, the tests being significant in almost 100% of the replicates, although the observed population structure infered from nuclear markers was extremely low (F(ST) = 0.6%).  相似文献
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Bat genitalia: allometry, variation and good genes   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Male genitalia are typically highly variable across species, for which sexual selection is thought to be responsible. Sexually selected traits characteristically show positive allometry and high phenotypic variation, although genitalia seem to be typified by negative allometry due to stabilizing selection. Additionally, while sexual selection appears to be the primary force responsible for genital evolution, the precise mechanism is unclear, but good-genes selection could be involved. If so, male genital variation should correlate with some male quality measure(s). We investigated the allometry of male Nyctalus noctula genitalia and investigated associations between genital size and three phenotypic measures of male quality (body size, relative body mass, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA)). We found that the penis exhibited positive allometry and high phenotypic variation, and was positively associated with male body size and relative body mass, but not with FA. This pattern is more typical of sexually selected display traits, contrasting with general patterns of genital allometry. The baculum was negatively allometric and was not associated with any quality measure. Our results suggest that the N. noctula penis is under directional sexual selection and is a reliable indicator of male phenotypic quality.  © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2004, 83 , 497–507.  相似文献
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中国翼手类新记录——小褐菊头蝠   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
2002年11月,在考察云南省西双版纳傣族自治州翼手目动物区系过程中,在景洪县基诺乡获得的6号标本,经鉴定为小褐菊头蝠(Rhinolophus stheno),为中国翼手类新记录。本文在比对已有文献描述的基础上,给出了所采集标本的测量数据和描述,并讨论了其分类地位和现状。  相似文献
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中国翼手类新记录--小巨足蝠   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
2003年9月在云南获得1号雌性蝙蝠标本,经鉴定为中国新记录——小巨足蝠(Myotis hasseltii),标本保存在中国科学院动物研究所。  相似文献
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