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1.
鸻形目15种鸟类线粒体ND6基因序列差异及其系统进化关系   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
采用PCR和质粒克隆测序方法,首次获得鸻形目l5种鸟类线粒体基因组的ND6基因全长522bp的序列。经对位排列,序列间末见有插入和缺失,共有216个变异位点,种间序列差异为5.17%—19.92%。以白鹤为外群,用NJ法构建15种鸟类的进化关系树。研究结果表明:构建的系统树将鸻形目15种鸟类分为2个支系:第1支系包括蒙古沙鸻、环颈鸻、灰斑鸻和反嘴鹬。第2支系包括红脚鹬、林鹬、青脚鹬、翘嘴鹬、翻石鹬、大滨鹬、尖尾滨鹬、斑尾塍鹬、中杓鹬、大杓鹬和白腰杓鹬,其中鹬属的3个种和杓鹬属的3个种分别组成一个单系;翘嘴鹬和翻石鹬、大滨鹬和尖尾滨鹬分别聚为姊妹群,表现出较近的亲缘关系;斑尾塍鹬独立分支出来。分子证据提示:鹬科中的塍鹬属、鸻科中的斑鸻属应提升为亚科分类阶元;反嘴鹬与鸻科鸟类亲缘关系较近,组成一个单系,将其归入鸻科下属的一个类群更为合理,与核型研究结果及Sibley新分类体系的观点相一致。  相似文献
2.
Identification of relationships among geographically distinct populations of migratory species can provide an understanding of breeding and natal philopatry, migration pathways, and population mixing during winter. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses to search for markers specific to difficult-to-differentiate shorebird species (e.g. long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus and short-billed dowitcher L. griseus ) as well as geographically distinct breeding populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica , red-necked phalaropes Phalaropus lobatus , semipalmated plovers Charadrius semipalmatus , dunlin Calidris alpina , pectoral sandpipers C. melanotos , semipalmated sandpipers C. pusilla and western sandpipers C. mauri . Markers clearly differentiated all shorebird species. Estimates of population differentiation varied greatly among species ( F ST= 0.095–0.685) and correlated with interspecific variation in philopatry and geographical separation of breeding populations. We assigned individuals to putative breeding locales with greater certainty in well-differentiated species than in poorly differentiated species. Our findings indicate specific phylogeographical structure varies among species, which has strong implications for conservation of habitats within migratory corridors. We suggest that RAPDs are useful in identifying geographical populations of migratory species and that molecular markers should be considered for tracking migratory birds throughout the annual cycle.  相似文献
3.
1. Although the plumage of birds is important for flight and thermoregulation, it is also employed in inter- and intraspecific communication. The role in communication of particular plumage features can be studied by experiment or, as here, by correlational analysis.
2. The study was carried out on the 210 species of wading birds, such as plovers, sandpipers, thick-knees and allies, that are placed within the traditional order Charadriiformes.
3. Species differ in the location and extent of 'flash marks', patches of white on the plumage that are typically conspicuous when the bird flies. These patches occur, in various permutations in different species, on the wing (primaries, secondaries, coverts), back, rump and tail.
4. Within a phylogenetic framework, it was asked which of several broad ecological variables (migration, habitat choice, feeding technique, propensity to flock) were correlated with the occurrence of flash marks. Only flocking correlated significantly. In particular, taxa that flock have flashier backs and coverts than their non-flocking relatives.
5. Three non-exclusive explanations for this correlation are: (i) individuals that take flight to avoid a predator may benefit from signalling their take-off to flock mates which themselves then take flight; (ii) flash marks could enhance the confusion effect within flocks, making it more difficult for a predator to single out an individual; and (iii) flash marks may facilitate co-ordinated flight within flocks.  相似文献
4.
The uropygial gland secretions of Charadriiformes species (Thinocorus rumicivorus, Gallinago gallinago, Scolopax rusticola) were analysed and the quantitative compositions compared with those of other Charadriiformes and Lariformes species. The results are discussed from a chemotaxonomic viewpoint and evidence for a close relationship between Thinocorus and other Charadriiformes is given.  相似文献
5.
6.
采用PCR和质粒克隆测序方法 ,首次获得形目 15种鸟类线粒体基因组的ND6基因全长 5 2 2bp的序列。经对位排列 ,序列间未见有插入和缺失 ,共有 2 16个变异位点 ,种间序列差异为 5 17%~ 19 92 %。以白鹳为外群 ,用NJ法构建 15种鸟类的进化关系树。研究结果表明 :构建的系统树将形目 15种鸟类分为 2个支系。第 1支系包括蒙古沙、环颈、灰斑和反嘴鹬。第 2支系包括红脚鹬、林鹬、青脚鹬、翘嘴鹬、翻石鹬、大滨鹬、尖尾滨鹬、斑尾塍鹬、中杓鹬、大杓鹬和白腰杓鹬 ,其中鹬属的 3个种和杓鹬属的 3个种分别组成一个单系 ;翘嘴鹬和翻石鹬、大滨鹬和尖尾滨鹬分别聚为姊妹群 ,表现出较近的亲缘关系 ;斑尾塍鹬独立分支出来。分子证据提示 :鹬科中的塍鹬属、科中的斑属应提升为亚科分类阶元 ;反嘴鹬与科鸟类亲缘关系较近 ,组成一个单系 ,将其归入科下属的一个类群更为合理 ,与核型研究结果及Sibley新分类体系的观点相一致 [动物学报 49(1) :6 1~ 6 7,2 0 0 3]。  相似文献
7.
采用PCR直接测序方法首次对形目 (Charadriiformes) 12种鸟类 :蒙古沙 (Charadriusmongolus)、环颈(Charadriusalexandrinus)、大杓鹬 (Numeniusmadagascariensis)、白腰杓鹬 (Numeniusarquata)、中杓鹬 (Numeniusphaeo pus)、红脚鹬 (Tringatotanus)、林鹬 (Tringaglareola)、翘嘴鹬 (Xenuscineres)、翻石鹬 (Arenariainterpres)、大滨鹬 (Calidristenuirostris)、反嘴鹬 (Recurvirostraavosetts)和砺鹬 (Haematopusostralensis)线粒体cytb基因全序列进行测定 ,并以白鹳(Ciconiaciconia)的同源序列作为外群构建系统发生树。经比对 ,形目 12种鸟类线粒体cytb基因全序列均包括1143bp ,序列间未见有插入和缺失 ,共有 381个变异位点 ,种间序列差异值为 5 16 %~ 16 0 1%。重建的系统树将形目 12种鸟类分为 2个支系 :第 1支系包括红脚鹬、林鹬、翻石鹬、大滨鹬、翘嘴鹬、中杓鹬、大杓鹬和白腰杓鹬 ,其中红脚鹬、林鹬、翻石鹬、大滨鹬、翘嘴鹬聚为一支 ,中杓鹬、大杓鹬和白腰杓鹬聚为另一支 ;第 2支系包括蒙古沙、环颈、反嘴鹬和砺鹬 ,其中反嘴鹬与砺鹬互为姐妹群 ,然后再与属的两个种蒙古沙和环颈组成的姐妹群构成并系群。分子证据提示 :第 1支系中各属间及种间的系统关系与形态学研#0;  相似文献
8.
本文报道了(行鸟)形目14种鸟的核型,并发现该目种类间染色体数目变异很大,由石(行鸟)的2n=40至沙锥的2n=98不等。这种变异是由原始的2n=80核型通过两种方式形成的:在(行鸟)小目中,小染色体相互融合而造成染色体数目的减少;在鹬小目中,大染色体的着丝点分离而造成染色体数目的增加。  相似文献
9.
As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an individual-based model of shorebird Charadriiformes populations, we attempted this for shorebirds eating macro-invertebrates. Intake rate is measured as the ash-free dry mass (AFDM) per second of active foraging; i.e. excluding time spent on digestive pauses and other activities, such as preening. The present and previous studies show that the general shape of the functional response in shorebirds eating approximately the same size of prey across the full range of prey density is a decelerating rise to a plateau, thus approximating the Holling type II ('disc equation') formulation. But field studies confirmed that the asymptote was not set by handling time, as assumed by the disc equation, because only about half the foraging time was spent in successfully or unsuccessfully attacking and handling prey, the rest being devoted to searching.A review of 30 functional responses showed that intake rate in free-living shorebirds varied independently of prey density over a wide range, with the asymptote being reached at very low prey densities (<150/m-2). Accordingly, most of the many studies of shorebird intake rate have probably been conducted at or near the asymptote of the functional response, suggesting that equations that predict intake rate should also predict the asymptote.A multivariate analysis of 468 'spot' estimates of intake rates from 26 shorebirds identified ten variables, representing prey and shorebird characteristics, that accounted for 81% of the variance in logarithm-transformed intake rate. But four-variables accounted for almost as much (77.3%), these being bird size, prey size, whether the bird was an oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus eating mussels Mytilus edulis, or breeding. The four variable equation under-predicted, on average, the observed 30 estimates of the asymptote by 11.6%, but this discrepancy was reduced to 0.2% when two suspect estimates from one early study in the 1960s were removed. The equation therefore predicted the observed asymptote very successfully in 93% of cases. We conclude that the asymptote can be reliably predicted from just four easily measured variables. Indeed, if the birds are not breeding and are not oystercatchers eating mussels, reliable predictions can be obtained using just two variables, bird and prey sizes. A multivariate analysis of 23 estimates of the half-asymptote constant suggested they were smaller when prey were small but greater when the birds were large, especially in oystercatchers. The resulting equation could be used to predict the half-asymptote constant, but its predictive power has yet to be tested. As well as predicting the asymptote of the functional response, the equations will enable research workers engaged in many areas of shorebird ecology and behaviour to estimate intake rate without the need for conventional time-consuming field studies, including species for which it has not yet proved possible to measure intake rate in the field.  相似文献
10.
Because of the difficulties of constructing a robust phylogeny for Charadriiform birds using morphological characters, recent studies have turned to DNA sequences to resolve the systematic uncertainties of family-level relationships in this group. However, trees constructed using nuclear genes or the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene suggest deep-level relationships of shorebirds that differ from previous studies based on morphology or DNA-DNA hybridization distances. To test phylogenetic hypotheses based on nuclear genes (RAG-1, myoglobin intron-2) and single mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b), approximately 13,000 bp of mitochondrial sequence was collected for one exemplar species of 17 families of Charadriiformes plus potential outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses show that trees constructed from long mitochondrial sequences are congruent with the nuclear gene topologies [Chardrii (Lari, Scolopaci)]. Unlike short mitochondrial sequences (such as Cytochrome b alone), longer sequences yield a well-supported phylogeny for shorebirds across various taxonomic levels. Examination of substitution patterns among mitochondrial genes reveals specific genes (especially ND5, ND4, ND2, and COI) that are better suited for phylogenetic analyses among shorebird families because of their relatively homogeneous nucleotide composition among lineages, slower accumulation of substitutions at third codon positions, and phylogenetic utility in both closely and distantly related lineages. For systematic studies of birds in which family and generic levels are examined simultaneously, we recommend the use of both nuclear and mitochondrial sequences as the best strategy to recover relationships that most likely reflect the phylogenetic history of these lineages.  相似文献
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