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1.
黔东早—中寒武世凯里组疑源类组合及其界线意义   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
通过对台江八郎和丹寨两条剖面凯里组中疑源类化石的分析,研究,台江剖面产疑源类化石有17属35各(12未定种),其中以Leiosphaeridia,Synsphareidium,Cymatiosphaera,Pterospermella最为丰富,可划分为3个组合,即Cymatiosphaera cf.cristata-Fimbriaglomerella memebrancea组合,Cristallinium-Micrhystridium-Pterospermella组合和Dictyotidium-Granomarginata组合,丹寨平寨剖面凯里组所产疑源类化石有:13属21种(5未定种),同样划分为3个组合,即Leiosphaeridia-Tasmanites组合,Retisphaeridium-Micrhystridium tentatium组合和Baltisphaeridium-Bubomorpha hunjiangensis组合,本文对两条剖面中的凝源类化石的组成,相对含量做了详细的统计,发现在八郎剖面9-2层和平寨剖面3层疑源类的丰度,分异度开始发生明显的变化,表现由早寒武世向中寒武世疑源类组合面貌的转变,这一疑源类转变层位正好是与三叶虫划分的中,下寒武统界线的层位位置相一致,这充分表明疑源类化石可作为划分中,下寒武统的极有价值的微体生物化石证据。  相似文献
2.
Phosphatized specimens of Olivooides from the Early Cambrian of Shaanxi, China, represent a number of developmental stages. These include cleavage, gastrulation, organogenesis, cuticularization, pre-hatching, post-hatching and subsequent growth. This allows the reconstruction of a nearly full developmental sequence of this animal. Olivooides had large (600-870 μm in diameter), sphaerical eggs, indicating a high yolk content. Development was direct. Thus adult characters were forming already in the embryo, and there was no free larval stage. The embryonic development took place within a smooth protective membrane. Gastrulation probably was by polar ingression, and the blastopore appears to correspond to the aperture of the later stages. An embryonic cuticle formed which carried star-shaped structures, stellae, over the entire surface except for a radially folded non-stellate portion around the future aperture. At a later stage, the stellate cuticle was thrown into folds concentric with the aperture. This radially folded tissue then became more dominant. After hatching, the body assumed the shape of a strongly annulated cone, with the stellate cuticle forming the apical part and the folded cuticle forming a longitudinally striate cuticle around the aperture. Subsequent growth took place through the addition of striate tissue. A pentaradial symmetry of the body is suggested by lateral folds in the apical part. Olivooides is interpreted as a cnidarian, probably closely related to the scyphozoans. The conical test may have housed a polyp similar to the thecate polyps of modern coronate scyphozoans, but, unlike the latter, Olivooides had no visible attachment structures. There is no evidence for or against a free medusa stage. The prevalence of lecithotrophic direct developers in the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, unless reflecting a preservational bias, casts some doubts on evolutionary models that assume larval planktotrophy to be primitive among metazoans.  相似文献
3.
We document the phylogenetic behavior of the 18S rRNA molecule in 67 taxa from 28 metazoan phyla and assess the effects of among-site rate variation on reconstructing phylogenies of the animal kingdom. This empirical assessment was undertaken to clarify further the limits of resolution of the 18S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker and to address the question of whether 18S rRNA phylogenies can be used as a source of evidence to infer the reality of a Cambrian explosion. A notable degree of among-site rate variation exists between different regions of the 18S rRNA molecule, as well as within all classes of secondary structure. There is a significant negative correlation between inferred number of nucleotide substitutions and phylogenetic information, as well as with the degree of substitutional saturation within the molecule. Base compositional differences both within and between taxa exist and, in certain lineages, may be associated with long branches and phylogenetic position. Importantly, excluding sites with different degrees of nucleotide substitution significantly influences the topology and degree of resolution of maximum-parsimony phylogenies as well as neighbor-joining phylogenies (corrected and uncorrected for among-site rate variation) reconstructed at the metazoan scale. Together, these data indicate that the 18S rRNA molecule is an unsuitable candidate for reconstructing the evolutionary history of all metazoan phyla, and that the polytomies, i.e., unresolved nodes within 18S rRNA phylogenies, cannot be used as a single or reliable source of evidence to support the hypothesis of a Cambrian explosion. Received: 9 December 1997 / Accepted: 23 March 1998  相似文献
4.
贵州台江凯里动物群中的非钙质藻类化石   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
贵州台江凯里组的非钙质藻类化石在我国中寒武统尚属首次发现。国外主要见于北美。描述的非钙质藻类化石Marpolia spissa. Bosworthia simulans ,Alga gen. et sp. indet, A,Alga etsp. indet, B等常见于北美布尔吉斯页岩动物群。当前中武寒武非钙质藻类化石的发现不仅填补了我国中寒武统非钙质藻类的空白,而且对于凯里动物群与布尔吉斯页斯  相似文献
5.
皖南早寒武世荷塘组海绵骨针化石   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8  
本文报道皖南休宁县早寒武世荷塘组黑色页岩中产出的海绵骨针化石组合,这些海绵骨针化石具有较高的丰度和分异度,它们以二轴四射针、T型针、三轴六射针和三轴五射针为主。骨针形态完整,并保存了内部轴丝、轴管以及同心圈层等微细构造。黄铁矿化在化石的保存中起了重要的作用,化石产出的时代可能为梅树村阶至筇竹寺阶(Tommotian-Atdabanian),这个化石组合证实了海绵动物在早寒武世已开始迅速分异。  相似文献
6.
湖南花垣中寒武世晚期至晚寒武世早期牙形石动物群   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6  
本文描述了湖南花垣排碧剖面中寒武世晚期至晚寒武世早期牙形石动物群的2个新属8个新种。论述了在中国南部首次建立的湖南花垣中-上寒武统牙形石带与华北和东北南部相应牙形石带的对比依据,概述了中国寒武纪牙石研究的简史和现状。  相似文献
7.
Cambrian lobopodians-ancestors of extant onychophorans?   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
This paper is a review of published information on fossil lobopodians, with addition of observations and ideas based on new material. It is also an analysis of the phytogeny of the group, and presents a new classification. A character shared by three or four families, yet not seen before, is a pair of enlarged sclerites covering the head. This forms an argument for re-orienting Hallucigenia once again. This genus no longer being enigmatic, a corner-stone in Stephen Jay Gould's evidence for extinct phyla is therefore gone. It is suggested that the lobopodians, phylum Lobopodia, are arranged in two classes, the extinct Xenusia for marine forms, and the Onychophora for terrestrial forms. The marine lobopodians are morphologically much more diverse than the extant onychophorans, a condition expressed in the classification. New taxa are: Hallucigenia fortis sp. nov., the families Luolishaniidae, Cardiodictyidae and Onychodictyidae, and the new orders Archonychophora, Scleronychophora and Paronychophora.  相似文献
8.
河南叶县下寒武统辛集组单板类和腹足类化石的研究   总被引:7,自引:3,他引:4  
本文描述和讨论了河南叶县杨寺庄下寒武统辛集组单板类13种,腹足类2种,未定类1种。其中包括2新属6新种:Repenoconus xinjiensis gen.nov.,Scenella pycna sp.nov.,Securiconus vulgaris sp.nov.,Obtusocnus grossicostus sp.nov.,Igorellina proboscis sp.nov.,Gal  相似文献
9.
In recent years, a number of phylogenetic methods have been developed for estimating molecular rates and divergence dates under models that relax the molecular clock constraint by allowing rate change throughout the tree. These methods are being used with increasing frequency, but there have been few studies into their accuracy. We tested the accuracy of several relaxed-clock methods (penalized likelihood and Bayesian inference using various models of rate change) using nucleotide sequences simulated on a nine-taxon tree. When the sequences evolved with a constant rate, the methods were able to infer rates accurately, but estimates were more precise when a molecular clock was assumed. When the sequences evolved under a model of auto-correlated rate change, rates were accurately estimated using penalized likelihood and by Bayesian inference using lognormal and exponential models of rate change, while other models did not perform as well. When the sequences evolved under a model of uncorrelated rate change, only Bayesian inference using an exponential rate model performed well. Collectively, the results provide a strong recommendation for using the exponential model of rate change if a conservative approach to divergence time estimation is required. A case study is presented in which we use a simulation-based approach to examine the hypothesis of elevated rates in the Cambrian period, and it is found that these high rate estimates might be an artifact of the rate estimation method. If this bias is present, then the ages of metazoan divergences would be systematically underestimated. The results of this study have implications for studies of molecular rates and divergence dates.  相似文献
10.
贵州早、中寒武世斗篷海绵科(Choiidae)的发现   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
本文描述了贵州遵义下寒武统牛蹄塘组生物群和台江中寒武世凯里生物群中保存完整的斗篷海绵科(Choiidae)中斗篷海绵(Choia)和小斗篷海绵(Choiaella)化石标本,共计2属2种2未定种:Choia zunyiensis sp.nov.,Choia sp.,Choiaella avata sp.nov.和Choiaella sp.。Choia分布很广.在我国下寒武统澄江生物群及北美中寒武统的四大生物群中均有产出。Choiaella原仅产于我国澄江生物群,凯里生物群中Choiaella的发现使其时代上延至中寒武世。贵州早、中寒武世斗篷海绵科的发现及研究为海绵动物的早期演化及古地理学等方面的研究提供了重要的新材料。  相似文献
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