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珍珠粉,珍珠层粉药用价值的比较   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
经研究表明:淡水珍珠层粉镇静作用强,抗胃溃疡作用较好。淡水珍珠粉抗皮肤溃疡作用强,海水珍珠层粉明目作用较强。  相似文献
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温度、湿度、光照对桔小实蝇飞行能力的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文明确温度、相对湿度和光照强度等3个环境因子变化对桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)雌、雄成虫飞行能力的影响.在不同温度、相对湿度和光照强度下,通过室内静风吊飞测试桔小实蝇雌、雄成虫的飞行距离、时间及速度.结果表明,适宜桔小实蝇飞行的温度范围是20℃-32℃,雌虫比雄虫更耐高温;最适宜飞行的空气相对湿度在60%-75%;桔小实蝇雌、雄成虫在有光照的条件下飞行,在500-2000 lux光照强度下飞行能力最强.分析表明,环境温度、空气相对湿度以及光照强度对桔小实蝇的飞行影响明显.低温或太高温对桔小实蝇飞行不利;较湿润的空气环境对桔小实蝇飞行有利,干燥或湿度过大均不利于桔小实蝇的飞行活动;光刺激是导致桔小实蝇飞行活动的基本条件,光照强度过弱或过强均不利于桔小实蝇飞行.  相似文献
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A first order analytical approximation of steady-state heat conduction in a hollow cylinder exchanging heat at its external surface by convection with a cold and windy environment is presented. The model depicts the thermal behavior of certain body elements, e.g., head/face, when exposed to such environments. The results are presented by dimensionless parameters and facilitate the estimation of wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs). The effects of several variables on determining WCETs were studied using specific examples, leading to the following generalizations: (1) the conditions assumed for "calm" wind speed appear to be a dominant factor in determining WCET; (2) the effects, on both (skin) surface temperature and on WCET, of a 1°C change in environmental temperature appear to be more pronounced than those of a 1 m/s change in wind speed; (3) similarly, predicted WCETs are more sensitive to the geometrical dimensions assumed for the modeled entity than they are to wind speeds; and (4) tissue thermal conductivity, the angle at which the convective heat transfer coefficient is measured relative to wind direction, and the factor used to establish "effective" wind speeds in the domain occupied by humans relative to reported values, all seem to have relatively small effects on the determination of WCET. These conclusions strongly suggest, among other things, that for any given combination of environmental conditions, wind chill indices may best be presented as ranges rather than as single values. This seems to apply even when worst-case scenarios are considered. Also emphasized is the need for careful and realistic selection of all the parameter values used in the determination of WCETs.  相似文献
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The white matter (WM) represents approximately half the cerebrum volume and is profoundly affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, both the WM responses to AD as well as potential influences of this compartment to dementia pathogenesis remain comparatively neglected. Neuroimaging studies have revealed WM alterations are commonly associated with AD and renewed interest in examining the pathologic basis and importance of these changes.  相似文献
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The clathrin-assembly protein AP180 is known to promote the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles in the neuron. However, it is unknown whether the expression of AP180 is influenced by neuronal activity. In this study, we report that chronic depolarization results in a reduction of AP180 from hippocampal neurons, while acute depolarization causes a dispersed synaptic distribution of AP180. Activity-induced effects are observed only for AP180, but not for the structurally-related clathrin-assembly proteins CALM, epsin1, or HIP1. These findings suggest that AP180 levels and synaptic distribution are highly sensitive to neuronal activity.  相似文献
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The overproduction and extracellular buildup of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a critical step in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Recent data suggest that intracellular trafficking is of central importance in the production of Aβ. Here we use a neuronal cell line to examine two structurally similar clathrin assembly proteins, AP180 and CALM. We show that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AP180 reduces the generation of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, whereas CALM knockdown has no effect on Aβ generation. Thus AP180 is among the traffic controllers that oversee and regulate amyloid precursor protein processing pathways. Our results also suggest that AP180 and CALM, while similar in their domain structures and biochemical properties, are in fact dedicated to separate trafficking pathways in neurons.  相似文献
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Chemical synapses are specialist points of contact between two neurons, where information transfer takes place. Communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitter substances from small synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal, which fuse with the presynaptic plasma membrane in response to neuronal stimulation. However, as neurons in the central nervous system typically only possess ~ 200 vesicles, high levels of release would quickly lead to a depletion in the number of vesicles, as well as leading to an increase in the area of the presynaptic plasma membrane (and possible misalignment with postsynaptic structures). Hence, synaptic vesicle fusion is tightly coupled to a local recycling of synaptic vesicles. For a long time, however, the exact molecular mechanisms coupling fusion and subsequent recycling remained unclear. Recent work now indicates a unique role for the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), acting together with the vesicular protein synaptotagmin, in coupling these two processes. In this work, we review the evidence for such a mechanism and discuss both the possible advantages and disadvantages for vesicle recycling (and hence signal transduction) in the nervous system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipids and Vesicular Transport.  相似文献
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