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1.
During aging of the human brain, and particularly in Alzheimer's disease, progressive neuronal loss is accompanied by the formation of highly stable intra- and extraneuronal protein fibers. Using fluorescence-activated particle sorting, a method has been developed for purifying essentially to homogeneity the extracellular amyloid fibers that form the cores of senile plaques. The purified plaque cores each contain 60-130 pg of protein. Their amino acid composition shows abundant glycine, trace proline, and approximately 50% hydrophobic residues; it resembles that of enriched fractions of the paired helical filaments (PHF) that accumulate intraneuronally in Alzheimer's disease. Senile plaque amyloid fibers share with PHF insolubility in numerous protein denaturants and resistance to proteinases. However, treatment of either fiber preparation with concentrated (88%) formic acid or saturated (6.8 M) guanidine thiocyanate followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate causes disappearance of the fibers and releases proteins migrating at 5-7,000 and 11-15,000 Mr which appear to be dimerically related. Following their separation by size-exclusion HPLC, the proteins solubilized from plaque amyloid and PHF-enriched fractions have highly similar compositions and, on dialysis, readily aggregate into higher Mr polymers. Antibodies raised to the major low-Mr protein selectively label both plaque cores and vascular amyloid deposits in Alzheimer brain but do not stain neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaque neurites, or any other neuronal structure. Thus, extraneuronal amyloid plaque filaments in Alzheimer's disease are composed of hydrophobic low-Mr protein(s) which are also present in vascular amyloid deposits. Current evidence suggests that such protein(s) found in PHF-enriched fractions may derive from copurifying amyloid filaments rather than from PHF.  相似文献
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Survivin inhibits apoptosis during development and carcinogenesis and is absent in differentiated cells. To determine whether survivin inhibition induces cell death in neural tumor cells, survivin antisense oligonucleotides (SAO) were administered to a human neuroblastoma (MSN) and an oligodendroglioma (TC620) resulting in a dose-dependent reduction in survivin protein. Although 74% of the SAO-treated MSN cells were trypan blue(+), PARP cleavage or activated caspase-3 was not observed. However nuclear translocation of AIF occurred and XIAP increased dramatically. Co-administration of z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) with SAO did not inhibit cell death suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death. Propidium iodide (PI) staining revealed multiple large macronuclei with no apoptotic bodies supporting a role for survivin in cell division. By contrast, while 70% of the SAO-treated TC620 cells were trypan blue(+), PARP was cleaved, cells were TUNEL(+) and PI-staining revealed macronuclei and numerous apoptotic bodies. Co-treatment of the TC620 cells with SAO and zVAD-fmk blocked cell death. While no macronuclei or apoptotic bodies were observed there was a two-fold increase in metaphase cells. Our results suggest that survivin inhibition decreases the viability of human neural tumor cells and as a result of mitotic catastrophe, cell death can be initiated by either a classic apoptotic mechanism or a caspase-independent mechanism.  相似文献
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人骨髓间充质干细胞在成年大鼠脑内的迁移及分化   总被引:29,自引:2,他引:27  
Hou LL  Zheng M  Wang DM  Yuan HF  Li HM  Chen L  Bai CX  Zhang Y  Pei XT 《生理学报》2003,55(2):153-159
骨髓间充质干细胞 (mesenchymalstemcells,MSCs)是目前备受关注的一类具有多向分化潜能的组织干细胞 ,体外可以分化为骨、软骨、脂肪等多种细胞。因此 ,MSCs是细胞治疗和基因治疗的种子细胞之一。为了探索MSCs的迁移和分化趋势 ,为帕金森病 (Parkinsondisease,PD)的干细胞治疗提供理论和实验依据 ,本实验将体外扩增并转染增强型绿色荧光蛋白 (enhancedgreenfluorescentprotein ,EGFP)的人骨髓MSCs注入PD大鼠脑内纹状体 ,观察了人骨髓MSCs在大鼠脑内的存活、迁移、分化以及注射MSCs前后大鼠的行为变化。结果表明 ,人骨髓MSCs在大鼠脑内可存活较长时间 ( 10周以上 ) ;随着时间的延长 ,MSCs迁移范围扩大 ,分布于纹状体、胼胝体、皮质以及脑内血管壁 ;免疫组化法检测证实MSCs在大鼠脑内表达人神经丝蛋白 (neurofilament,NF)、神经元特异性烯醇化酶 (neuron specificeno lase,NSE)以及胶质原纤维酸性蛋白 ( glialfibrillaryacidprotein ,GFAP) ;PD大鼠的异常行为有所缓解 ,转圈数由 8 86±2 0 9r/min下降到 4 87± 2 0 6r/min ,统计学分析P <0 0 5为差异显著。以上观察结果表明 ,骨髓MSCs有望成为治疗PD的种子细胞  相似文献
5.
Two procedures are described for isolating free (nonsynaptosomal) mitochondria from rat brain. Both procedures employ a discontinuous Percoll gradient and yield well coupled mitochondria which exhibit high rates of respiratory activity and contain little residual contamination by synaptosomes or myelin. The procedures are considerably more rapid than methods described previously for the isolation of brain mitochondria and do not require an ultracentrifuge or swing-out rotor. The first method separates mitochondria by gradient centrifugation from a P2 (crude mitochondrial) fraction and is likely to be widely applicable for studies in which at least 500 mg of tissue are available as starting material. In the second method, the unfractionated homogenate is subjected directly to gradient centrifugation. This method requires the preparation of more gradients (per gram of tissue) than the first method and yields a subcellular fraction with slightly more synaptosomal contamination. However, this second procedure is more rapid, requires less manipulation of the tissue, and is suitable for obtaining mitochondria with well preserved metabolic characteristics from subregions of single rat brains.  相似文献
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Quantitative aspects of reactive gliosis: A review   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
Recent studies of gliosis in a variety of animal models are reviewed. The models include brain injury, neurotoxic damage, genetic diseases and inflammatory demyelination. These studies show that reactive gliosis is not a stereotypic response, but varies widely in duration, degree of hyperplasia, and time course of expression of GFAP immunostaining, content and mRNA. We conclude that there are different biological mechanisms for induction and maintenance of reactive gliosis, which, depending on the kind of tissue damage, result in different expressions of the gliotic response.Special issue dedicated to Dr. Alan N. Davison.  相似文献
8.
Determination of Brain Interstitial Concentrations by Microdialysis   总被引:26,自引:20,他引:6  
Microdialysis is an extensively used technique for the study of solutes in brain interstitial space. The method is based on collection of substances by diffusion across a dialysis membrane positioned in the brain. The outflow concentration reflects the interstitial concentration of the substance of interest, but the relationship between these two entities is at present unclear. So far, most evaluations have been based solely on calibrations in saline. This procedure is misleading, because the ease by which molecules in saline diffuse into the probe is different from that of tissue. We describe here a mathematical analysis of mass transport into the dialysis probe in tissue based on diffusion equations in complex media. The main finding is that diffusion characteristics of a given substance have to be included in the formula. These include the tortuosity factor (lambda) and the extracellular volume fraction (alpha). We have substantiated this by studies in a well-defined complex medium (red blood cell suspensions) as well as in brain. We conclude that the traditional calculation procedure results in interstitial concentrations that are too low by a factor of lambda 2/alpha for a given compound.  相似文献
9.
Deficits of cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by receptor binding assays. Little is known about the receptor subunit specificity influenced by AD, and it might be of importance for therapeutic strategies. In the present study, the protein levels of nAChR alpha3, alpha4, alpha7, and beta2 subunits were investigated using western blot analysis on postmortem brains of patients with AD and age-matched controls. The results showed that in human postmortem brain samples, bands with molecular masses of 52, 42, and 50 kDa were detected by anti-alpha4, anti-alpha7, and anti-beta2 antibodies, respectively. When anti-alpha3 antibody was used, one major band of 49 kDa and two minor bands of 70 and 38 kDa were detected. In AD patients, as compared with age-matched controls, the alpha4 subunit was reduced significantly by approximately 35 and 47% in the hippocampus and temporal cortex, respectively. A significant reduction of 25% in the alpha3 subunit was also observed in the hippocampus and a 29% reduction in the temporal cortex. For the alpha7 subunit, the protein level was reduced significantly by 36% in the hippocampus of AD patients, but no significant change was detected in the temporal cortex. In neither the hippocampus nor the temporal cortex was a significant difference observed in the beta2 subunit between AD patients and controls. These results reveal brain region-specific changes in the protein levels of the nAChR alpha3, alpha4, and alpha7 subunits in AD.  相似文献
10.
More than 20 matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and four of their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) act together to control tightly temporally restricted, focal proteolysis of extracellular matrix. In the neurons of the adult brain several components of the TIMP/MMP system are expressed and are responsive to changes in neuronal activity. Furthermore, functional studies, especially involving blocking of MMP activities, along with the identification of MMP substrates in the brain strongly suggest that this enzymatic system plays an important physiological role in adult brain neurons, possibly being pivotal for neuronal plasticity.  相似文献
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