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Summary The phylogeny of the major groups of tetrapods (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) has until recently been poorly understood. Cladistic analyses of morphological data are producing new hypotheses concerning the relationships of the major groups, with a focus on the identification of monophyletic groups. Molecular phylogenies support some of these views and dispute others. Geological dates of the major evolutionary branching points are recalculated on the basis of the cladograms and new fossil finds.  相似文献
为考察道路和道路施工对若尔盖高寒泥炭湿地野生动物的影响,我们在穿过若尔盖湿地的2条道路两侧,对距道路不同距离的小型兽类和鸟类分布进行了调查,其中小型兽类调查深度距离公路800m,鸟类调查深度距离公路400m。施工中的国道213线路两侧黑唇鼠兔(Ochotonacurzoniae)洞穴高密度区域离道路更远,在道路两侧400m处达到峰值,极显著高于距离道路10m处的密度;而在正常运营中的省道209线两侧,其洞穴密度在200m处达到最高值,与其他距离的洞穴密度没有显著性差异。无论在国道213线还是省道209线,道路对高原鼢鼠(Myospalaxbaileyi)洞穴分布的影响均未达到显著性水平。在正常运营的省道209线两侧,高原鼢鼠土堆密度最高区域为距离道路100m处;而施工的道路两侧高原鼢鼠土堆密度最高区域则出现在距离道路10m处,第二高峰出现在距离道路400m处。雀形目和隼形目鸟类的分布均呈现距离道路越远密度越高的趋势,但是只有距离道路400m处雀形目鸟类的密度显著高于50m与200m处;距离道路不同距离的样线中隼形目鸟类密度和物种丰富度没有显著性差异。由此可以看出,施工中的道路对黑唇鼠兔的影响区域比正常运营的道路更宽,其公路效应域达到400m,400m的调查深度对鸟类尤其是隼形目鸟类来说可能还略有不足。但是,根据此深度的调查可以确定施工中的国道213线雀形目和隼形目鸟类的公路效应域宽度大于400m。  相似文献
Expression of the HNK-1/NC-1 epitope in early vertebrate neurogenesis   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Summary A family of glycoconjugates has recently been shown to share a common carbohydrate epitope recognized by the mouse monoclonal antibody HNK-1. The specificity of HNK-1 was found to be similar to that of another monoclonal antibody, NC-1. These two IgM monoclonal antibodies were raised after immunization of mice with a human T-cell line and avian neural crest-derived ganglia, respectively. The antigens recognized by these antibodies include the myelin-associated glycoprotein, MAG, a glycolipid of defined structure, and a set of molecules involved in cell adhesion. The timing and pattern of appearance of these antigens are distinct. Moreover, the epitope may be absent on an antigen at a given stage or in a given tissue. Therefore, although the molecules able to carry the NC-1/ HNK-1 epitope are numerous and expressed in various tissues, the use of the monoclonal antibodies on tissue sections has proven adequate for following the migration of avian neural crest cells, the major cell lineage recognized by NC-1 and HNK-1 during early embryogenesis. Analogies in several other species have been found on the basis of HNK-1 reactivity. In this study we show that NC-1 and HNK-1 can be used successfully to label migrating neural crest cells in dog, pig and human. On the other hand, the NC-l/HNK-1 epitope was not present on migrating crest cells in amphibians or mice and was found only transiently on the neural crest of rats.  相似文献
社群学习对植食性鸟类和哺乳动物觅食行为的作用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
社群学习是动物的一种可塑性行为表现型式。综述了社群学习对植食性鸟类和哺乳动物觅食行为的作用,并述评了其学习机制。社群同伴对动物个体觅食地点、时间和取食方式均有影响,母体摄食的食物信息可通过胎盘和乳汁显著影响幼体的食物选择。动物通过观察学习、嗅闻学习以及味觉厌恶学习,不仅能更快找到食物资源,提高觅食效率,而且能有效降低中毒与被捕食的风险,从而提高其适合度。  相似文献
为了解北京雾灵山自然保护区野生动物资源现状,于2014年11月至2015年4月,在保护区内放置30台红外相机开展调查。结果共记录鸟类5目14科27种,兽类4目8科10种,其中勺鸡(Pucrasia macrolopha)、红角鸮(Otus sunia)、纵纹腹小鸮(Athene noctua)和中华斑羚(Naemorhedus griseus)为国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物。鸟类物种数月变化剧烈。相对丰富度最高的6种动物为狍(Capreolus pygargus)(60.19)、红嘴蓝鹊(Urocissa erythrorhyncha)(34.14)、星鸦(Nucifraga caryocatactes)(27.78)、岩松鼠(Sciurotamias davidianus)(23.34)、松鸦(Garrulus glandarius)(23.34)、中华斑羚(21.99)。对狍、岩松鼠、中华斑羚进行日活动节律分析,狍属晨昏活动型;中华斑羚有两个活动高峰;岩松鼠的日活动高峰集中在晨间,为单峰型。本研究提供了北京雾灵山部分鸟兽资源的最新动态现状及活动节律信息,同时表明红外相机在拍摄地栖性鸟类、大中型兽类、夜行性动物方面具有优势,而对于非地栖鸟类和小型兽类,红外相机有一定局限性。本研究为应用红外相机技术开展森林野生动物多样性监测提供了经验。  相似文献
Avian literature on sibling recognition is rare compared to that developed by mammalian researchers. We compare avian and mammalian research on sibling recognition to identify why avian work is rare, how approaches differ and what avian and mammalian researchers can learn from each other. Three factors: (1) biological differences between birds and mammals, (2) conceptual biases and (3) practical constraints, appear to influence our current understanding. Avian research focuses on colonial species because sibling recognition is considered adaptive where 'mixing potential' of dependent young is high; research on a wider range of species, breeding systems and ecological conditions is now needed. Studies of acoustic recognition cues dominate avian literature; other types of cues (e.g. visual, olfactory) deserve further attention. The effect of gender on avian sibling recognition has yet to be investigated; mammalian work shows that gender can have important influences. Most importantly, many researchers assume that birds recognise siblings through 'direct familiarisation' (commonly known as associative learning or familiarity); future experiments should also incorporate tests for 'indirect familiarisation' (commonly known as phenotype matching). If direct familiarisation proves crucial, avian research should investigate how periods of separation influence sibling discrimination. Mammalian researchers typically interpret sibling recognition in broad functional terms (nepotism, optimal outbreeding); some avian researchers more successfully identify specific and testable adaptive explanations, with greater relevance to natural contexts. We end by reporting exciting discoveries from recent studies of avian sibling recognition that inspire further interest in this topic.  相似文献
The paper represents the first review of data on the involvement of chloride channels (their inhibitors and media, in which chloride ions are substituted for anions that poorly penetrate in the cell) in the regulation of basal and gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis in the gonads of amphibians, birds, and mammals. Possible causes are considered for different reactions of the gonad steroidogenic cells in representatives of different vertebrate classes to a decreased medium concentration of chloride and the involvement of chloride channels and/or chloride ions in the regulation of steroidogenesis is discussed.  相似文献
The first step towards the preservation of endangered species is to establish an appropriate ranking system, which assigns different nature conservation priority scores to different taxa. The system developed by Millsap et al. (Wildlife Monograph 1990, 111: 1–57) has been modified and applied to the mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian species of Hungary. Three variable groups have been compiled, including eight (measuring biological characteristics), three (features of the Hungarian population) and five (evaluation of research and conservation actions) variables, respectively. In cooperation with several experts, we gave scores to all 379 taxa considered. The most endangered taxon proved to be the Hungarian Meadow Viper (Vipera ursinii rakosiensis), which occurs only in Hungary with just a few hundred individuals. The species rank depends on the availability and quality of data, so it is urgent to devote more effort to survey and monitoring projects. We present a possible application of the species list, where the taxa are grouped according to their legal status in Hungary (strictly protected, protected, partly protected and not protected), and the validity of this categorisation was tested by applying multivariate discriminant analysis. Only 58.36% of the species were correctly classified. The reasons for stronger than expected protection include popularity, attractiveness, and local rarity, while reasons for lower protection include preference for hunting and control of predators and pests.  相似文献
We hypothesize that the general differences in breeding systems between birds and mammals results from a different outcome of the between-sex arms race. The arms race has been won by male mammals that can impose their mating decision over females, but has been lost by male birds because of the extreme specialization of forearms that do not allow males to trap and hold females during copulation. Male birds compensate for their inability to force copulation by developing "Don Juan" behaviour to persuade females to accept copulation.  相似文献
Destruction and fragmentation of tropical rain forest result in a loss of species and of generating capacity of the ecosystem via animal vectors such as seed dispersal agents. To gather quantitative data regarding this ecological problem, birds and mammals were censused in 30 forest fragments, 15 agricultural islands representing five types of vegetation (coffee, cacao, citrus, pepper and mixed-crops) and in three pastures in Los Tuxtlas, southern Veracruz, Mexico. More than 6000 animals of 257 species were detected thus suggesting the existence of a rich species pool in the fragmented landscape. Frugivores accounted for 60% of species, for 72% of individuals censured and for 85% of the total animal biomass recorded. Clusters of small forest fragments (<100 ha) were richer in species and individuals than clusters of large area (>100 ha) forest islands. Pastures were especially poor in forest birds and mammals. While the agricultural islands studied contributed to only 1% of the total area of vegetation sampled, they contained 58% of all species detected and 34% of all individual birds and mammals censured. Recaptures indicated inter-island movements of forest birds and mammals. Forty percent of the species were detected in forest habitats only, the rest were detected in forest and in agricultural habitats. Seeds of forest interior plants dispersed by birds and bats were detected in the agricultural habitats. The value of agricultural islands as landscape features providing some degree of biotic connectivity among fragmented animal populations is discussed.  相似文献
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