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1.
白头鹎方言的初步研究   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
姜仕仁  施青松 《动物学报》1996,42(4):361-367
对浙江省乘泗岛,普陀岛,温岭,长兴,杭州和龙游等6个地区白头鹎的鸣声进行了研究,发现它们鸣声主句的语调,音节数,持续时间,频谱特征和频率范围等均有差异,说明白头鹎鸣声中普遍存在“方言”,但它们作为同一个种在鸣声主句上有其共同特征:主要是鸣声多在1.5-3kHz的低中频段内变化,单音节的鸣叫声等都极为相似。  相似文献
2.
鸟类鸣声行为对其物种分化和新种形成影响   总被引:15,自引:4,他引:11  
鸟声和鸟类的形态特征一样,具有物种的特异性,在鸟类分类和野外识别方面是有意义的,从生物种的基本概念出发,新种的形成有赖于两个亲缘种群间不能相互婚配和繁殖隔离的产生。鸟类主要的有关特征是在配对形成过程中的听觉和视觉特征,如果出现鸣声特征的差异,而且这种差异已经超出了种间“语言通讯”的变化范围,那么它就有可能与群内其它异笥无法配对,从而被排除到该种群或种的范围之外,然而鸣禽的鸣唱有时在不同种群间变化很大,而在同一种群内比较稳定,从而形成种群的方言,在方言种群之间,如果长期隔离,就会在种群之间形成障碍乃至遗传上的隔离,从而使种群间失去了相互配偶的机会,新的亚种或种可能由此形成,文章最后假设出了基于鸣声行为的鸟类新种形成机理图解。  相似文献
3.
鸟类鸣声结构地理变异及其分类学意义   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12  
鸟声作为鸟类重要的生物学特征,是鸟类行为与声学研究相互交叉,相互渗透的新的边缘学科,近年来录音及声谱分析技术的发展使得鸟声研究已渗透到鸟类的各个研究领域。鸟类鸣声结构的地理变异,有时也称“鸟声方言”,不仅具有一定的种群稳定性而且具有个体性。它不仅与种群的遗传有关,而且与环境的异质性以及鸣声学习有关;鸣声方言可部分地阻碍种群的扩散,阻碍种群的基因漂移,从而影响到种群的基因库,长时间的地理隔离和生类学  相似文献
4.
Secondary sexual characters may have evolved in part to signalresistance to parasites. Avian song has been hypothesized tobe involved in this process, but the role of parasites in modulatingacoustic communication systems in birds remains largely unknown,owing to lack of experiments. We studied the relationship betweenparasitism, testosterone, song performance, and mating successin male collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) by experimentallychallenging their immune system with a novel antigen. We predictedthat a challenge of the immune system would reduce song performance,and that this reduction would be conditional on the size ofa visual sexual signal, the forehead patch that was previouslyfound to reflect resistance. An antagonistic linkage betweentestosterone and immune function would predict that a challengeof the immune system should suppress testosterone level. Animmunological treatment by sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) triggereda decrease in body mass, testosterone level, and song rate,but other song traits were not significantly affected by theantigen challenge. Initial testosterone level was associatedwith forehead patch size and all song traits except song rate.SRBC injection caused stronger reduction in song rate amongmales with smaller forehead patches, and the change in songrate was also predictable by song features such as strophe complexityand length. We show that song rate and other song characteristicsmay be important cues in male-male competition and female choice.These results suggest that parasite-mediated sexual selectionhas contributed in shaping a complex acoustic communicationsystem in the collared flycatcher, and that testosterone mayplay an important role in this process. Parasitism may drivea multiple signaling mechanism involving acoustic and visualtraits with different signal function.  相似文献
5.
Female songbirds are thought to assess males based on aspectsof song, such as repertoire size or amount of singing, thatcould potentially provide information about male quality. Arelatively unexplored aspect of song that also might serve asan assessment signal is a male's ability to perform physicallychallenging songs. Trilled songs, such as those produced byswamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana), present males with a performancechallenge because trills require rapid and precise coordinationof vocal tract movements, resulting in a trade-off between trillrate and frequency bandwidth. This trade-off defines a constrainton song production observed as a triangular distribution inacoustic space of trill rate by frequency bandwidth, with anupper boundary that represents a performance limit. Given thisbackground on song production constraints, we are able to identifya priori which songs are performed with a higher degree of proficiencyand, thus, which songs should be more attractive to females.We determined the performance limit for a population of swampsparrows and measured how well individual males performed songsrelative to this limit ("vocal performance"). We then comparedfemale solicitation responses to high-performance versus low-performanceversions of the same song type produced by different males.Females displayed significantly more to high-performance songsthan to low-performance songs, supporting the hypothesis thatfemales use vocal performance to assess males.  相似文献
6.
The evolution of immune defense and song complexity in birds   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Abstract There are three main hypotheses that explain how the evolution of parasite virulence could be linked to the evolution of secondary sexual traits, such as bird song. First, as Hamilton and Zuk proposed a role for parasites in sexual selection, female preference for healthy males in heavily parasitized species may result in extravagant trait expression. Second, a reverse causal mechanism may act, if sexual selection affects the coevolutionary dynamics of host-parasite interactions per se by selecting for increased virulence. Third, the immuno-suppressive effects of ornamentation by testosterone or limited resources may lead to increased susceptibility to parasites in species with elaborate songs. Assuming a coevolutionary relationship between parasite virulence and host investment in immune defense we used measures of immune function and song complexity to test these hypotheses in a comparative study of passerine birds. Under the first two hypotheses we predicted avian song complexity to be positively related to immune defense among species, whereas this relationship was expected to be negative if immuno-suppression was at work. We found that adult T-cell mediated immune response and the relative size of the bursa of Fabricius were independently positively correlated with a measure of song complexity, even when potentially confounding variables were held constant. Nestling T-cell response was not related to song complexity, probably reflecting age-dependent selective pressures on host immune defense. Our results are consistent with the hypotheses that predict a positive relationship between song complexity and immune function, thus indicating a role for parasites in sexual selection. Different components of the immune system may have been independently involved in this process.  相似文献
7.
Summary Most temperate zone passerines defend territories during the breeding season. Commonly the size of these territories is estimated by plotting the singing locations of the males. However, an individual's activities need not be restricted to the area used for singing. So far, only little quantitative information has been available to determine how the singing territory relates to the activity range of male songbirds. Here, we present a study in which we used radio-tracking techniques to collect quantitative data on the spatial behaviour of 11 male territorial Nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos). The results show that the singing territories made up only about 50% of the activity ranges. Nevertheless, males spent over 90% of the time within the singing territory. Singing territories almost never overlapped but activity ranges overlapped in all cases with the activity range of at least one neighbour. Males intruded into neighbouring territories throughout the season but the longest excursions were made before and during the female fertile period. The time spent for forays correlated significantly with song rate and territories of males with higher song rates in turn were less frequently the object of forays by other males. Song rate can be indicative of male quality, so that our findings strongly suggest that foray behaviour is related to male quality in nightingales.
Das Raum- und Gesangsverhalten von männlichen Nachtigallen in der Brutsaison: radiotelemetrische Untersuchungen
Zusammenfassung Männliche Singvögel markieren mit ihrem Gesang ein Revier. Empirische Studien zeigen allerdings, dass Männchen und Weibchen das Revier verlassen und in Reviere von Nachbarn eindringen. Solche Ausflüge sind vor allem in dichteren Habitaten schwierig zu beobachten, so dass für die meisten Vogelarten kaum Datenmaterial für die Raumnutzung außerhalb der Gesangsreviere vorliegt. In dieser Studie haben wir über den Verlauf der Brutsaison 11 männliche territoriale Nachtigallen telemetriert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Aktionstradien im Mittel doppelt so groß waren, wie die Gesangsreviere und dass die Männchen ca. 8% der Zeit außerhalb der Gesangsreviere verbracht haben. Dabei überlappten die Aktionsräume benachbarter Männchen deutlich. Die Männchen drangen vor allem vor und während der fertilen Phasen der Weibchen in Nachbarreviere vor. Darüber hinaus drangen Männchen mit höherer Gesangsaktivität signifikant länger in Nachbarreviere ein, als Männchen mit geringerer Gesangsaktivität. Reviere von Männchen mit höherer Gesangsaktivität wurden dabei auch signifikant seltener von anderen Männchen besucht. Da die Gesangsaktivität mit der Qualität eines Männchens zusammenhängen kann, weisen die Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass qualitativ bessere Männchen mehr in Nachbarreviere eindringen als qualitativ schlechtere Männchen und die Reviere der qualitativ besseren Männchen auch weniger häufig von Rivalen besucht werden. Dass solche Ausflüge von Männchen für Versuche zu außerpaarlichen Kopulationen genutzt werden, ist anzunehmen, muss aber noch geklärt werden. Die räumlichen Beziehungen territorialer Männchen reflektieren darüber hinaus vermutlich Aspekte der sozialen Beziehungen.
  相似文献
8.
鸟类鸣唱曲目与复杂性   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
鸟类的鸣唱是研究性选择和动物声音通讯的良好素材,一般认为鸟类的鸣唱曲目是性选择的结果.本文综述了鸣唱曲目和鸣唱复杂性的实验和理论成果,阐述二者的相关性,曲目和复杂鸣唱产生的解剖学基础及其得以进化形成的功能性原因.曲目和鸣唱的复杂性源于鸟类发声器官特定结构的复杂性和神经系统的协调作用,鸣唱的表现形式同时受多种因子影响,可根据改变的生境进行适应性调节.曲目和多种鸣唱型存在的必要性还在于其功能的多样性,鸟类借助于多种鸣唱型之间的转换,传达了有利于繁殖的多种信息.  相似文献
9.
Stress may have consequences for the evolution of condition-dependentsexual traits. For example, stress may be related to sexualtraits through immune function, and sexual traits can reflecthow individuals bear the costs of stress-mediated immunosuppression.However, male traits may be directly associated with stress,and such traits would then indicate stress tolerance. Here,we present initial results for the relationship between physiologicalstress estimated by the levels of heat shock proteins (HSP60and HSP70) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the elaborationof sexual traits, such as forehead and wing patch size and songfeatures in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Malesproducing longer and more versatile songs had significantlyhigher levels of HSP70, but other traits were unrelated to stress.In general, effect sizes for the relationship between stressand sexual traits had broad confidence intervals and variedbetween being small and medium effects. Immunoglobulin levels,leukocyte abundance, haemoparasite prevalence, male age, anddate and time effects did not affect the relationship betweenstress and sexual traits. These preliminary results, servinga basis for further experimental studies indicate that the relationshipbetween sexual traits and stress does not seem to be strong,but stress may partially constrain the expression of some sexualtraits.  相似文献
10.
Animal mating signals evolve in part through indirect natural selection on anatomical traits that influence signal expression. In songbirds, for example, natural selection on beak form and function can influence the evolution of song features, because of the role of the beak in song production. In this study we characterize the relationship between beak morphology and song features within a bimodal population of Geospiza fortis on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos. This is the only extant population of Darwin's finches that is known to possess a bimodal distribution in beak size. We test the hypothesis that birds with larger beaks are constrained to produce songs with lower frequencies and decreased vocal performance. We find that birds with longer, deeper, and wider beaks produce songs with significantly lower minimum frequencies, maximum frequencies and frequency bandwidths. Results from the analysis of the relationship between beak morphology and trill rate are mixed. Measures of beak morphology correlated positively with 'vocal deviation', a composite index of vocal performance. Overall these results support a resonance model of vocal tract function, and suggest that beak morphology, a primary target of ecological selection in Darwin's finches, affects the evolution of mating signals. We suggest that differences in song between the two modes of the distribution may influence mate recognition and perhaps facilitate assortative mating by beak size and population divergence.  © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2006, 88 , 489–498.  相似文献
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