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1.
Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway   总被引:97,自引:0,他引:97  
Zarubin T  Han J 《Cell research》2005,15(1):11-18
The family members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases mediate a wide variety of cellular behaviors in response to extracellular stimuli. One of the four main sub-groups, the p38 group of MAP kinases, serve as a nexus for signal transduction and play a vital role in numerous biological processes. In this review, we highlight the known characteristics and components of the p38 pathway along with the mechanism and consequences of p38 activation. We focus on the role of p38 as a signal transduction mediator and examine the evidence linking p38 to inflammation, cell cycle, cell death, development, cell differentiation, senescence and tumorigenesis in specific cell types. Upstream and downstream components of p38 are described and questions remaining to be answered are posed. Finally, we propose several directions for future research on p38.  相似文献
2.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) carries out multifaceted functions in tumor development, and it exists as at least five isoforms with distinct biologic activities and clinical implications. Several strategies have been developed to block VEGF for cancer therapy; however, the approach to target-specific VEGF isoform(s) has not been explored to date. In the present study, we show that DNA vector-based RNA interference (RNAi), in which RNAi sequences targeting murine VEGF isoforms are inserted downstream of an RNA polymerase III promoter, has potential applications in isoform-specific "knock-down" of VEGF. Large molecular weight VEGF isoforms were specifically reduced in vitro in the presence of isoform-specific RNAi constructs. Additionally, H1 promoter may be superior to U6 promoter when used for vector-based RNAi of VEGF isoforms. This strategy provides a novel tool to study the function of various VEGF isoforms and may contribute to VEGF isoform-specific treatment in cancer.  相似文献
3.
为研究NGAL(neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin)基因在永生化食管上皮细胞恶性转化中的表达情况,以永生化食管上皮细胞系SHEE和食管癌细胞系SHEEC互为对照,用cDNA微列阵进行筛选,用RNA印迹和RT-PCR进行鉴定,cDNA克隆测序后与GenBank进行BLAST分析比较.结果表明NGAL基因在SHEEC中出现显著差异过表达,其cDNA序列与小鼠24p3、大鼠NRL(neu-related lipocalin)、人中性粒细胞NGAL和卵巢癌NGAL具有较高的相似性.这提示NGAL基因在永生化食管上皮细胞恶性转化中可能发挥着重要作用,可能是一种新的癌基因或促癌基因.  相似文献
4.
抗菌肽CM4抗K562癌细胞的超微结构研究   总被引:39,自引:1,他引:38       下载免费PDF全文
报道了家蚕抗菌肽CM4抗K562癌细胞的体外实验研究.结果表明:纯化后的家蚕抗菌肽CM4对培养的K562(人髓样白血病细胞)有很强的杀伤作用.用扫描和透射电镜观察超微结构以及用激光共聚集显微断层图像分析,表明微量纯化的抗菌肽CM4能使K562癌细胞产生一系列的病理变化,可造成细胞高度肿胀,膜与胞质分离,细胞器和膜结构排列紊乱,细胞表面微绒毛消失,出现不规则的孔洞,细胞骨架严重破坏,膜局部结构破裂,缺损,胞浆内容物大量外泄,最终细胞解体,崩解成碎片.  相似文献
5.
VEGF: an update on biological and therapeutic aspects   总被引:38,自引:0,他引:38  
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenic inducer as well as a mediator of vascular permeability. VEGF is essential for developmental angiogenesis and is also required for female reproductive functions and endochondral bone formation. Substantial evidence also implicates VEGF in tumors and intraocular neovascular syndromes. Currently, several clinical trials are ongoing to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of VEGF activity may be beneficial for these conditions.  相似文献
6.
Beyond tumorigenesis: cancer stem cells in metastasis   总被引:38,自引:0,他引:38  
The importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumor-initiation has been firmly established in leukemia and recently reported for a variety of solid tumors. However, the role of CSCs in multistage cancer progression, particularly with respect to metastasis, has not been well-defined. Cancer metastasis requires the seeding and successful colonization of specialized CSCs at distant organs. The biology of normal stem cells and CSCs share remarkable similarities and may have important implications when applied to the study of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, overlapping sets of molecules and pathways have recently been identified to regulate both stem cell migration and cancer metastasis. These molecules constitute a complex network of cellular interactions that facilitate both the initiation of the pre-metastasis niche by the primary tumor and the formation of a nurturing organ microenvironment for migrating CSCs. In this review, we surveyed the recent advances in this dynamic field and propose a unified model of cancer progression in which CSCs assume a central role in both tumorigenesis and metastasis. Better understanding of CSCs as a fundamental component of the metastatic cascade will lead to novel therapeutic strategies against metastatic cancer.  相似文献
7.
8.
Neuregulins: functions,forms, and signaling strategies   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
The neuregulins (NRGs) are cell-cell signaling proteins that are ligands for receptor tyrosine kinases of the ErbB family. The neuregulin family of genes has four members: NRG1, NRG2, NRG3, and NRG4. Relatively little is known about the biological functions of the NRG2, 3, and 4 proteins, and they are considered in this review only briefly. The NRG1 proteins play essential roles in the nervous system, heart, and breast. There is also evidence for involvement of NRG signaling in the development and function of several other organ systems, and in human disease, including the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and breast cancer. There are many NRG1 isoforms, raising the question "Why so many neuregulins?" Study of mice with targeted mutations ("knockout mice") has demonstrated that isoforms differing in their N-terminal region or in their epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain differ in their in vivo functions. These differences in function might arise because of differences in expression pattern or might reflect differences in intrinsic biological characteristics. While differences in expression pattern certainly contribute to the observed differences in in vivo functions, there are also marked differences in intrinsic characteristics that may tailor isoforms for specific signaling requirements, a theme that will be emphasized in this review.  相似文献
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10.
Endogenous mutagens and the causes of aging and cancer   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
A very large oxidative damage rate to DNA occurs as part of normal metabolism. In each rat cell the steady-state level is estimated to be about 106 oxidative adducts and about 105 new adducts are formed daily. It is argued that this endogenous DNA damage is a major contributor to aging and the degenerative diseases of aging, such as cancer. The oxidative damage rate in mammalian species with a high metabolic rate, short life span, and high age-specific cancer rate is much higher than the rate in humans, a long-lived creature with a lower metabolic rate and a lower age-specific cancer rate. It is argured that deficiency of micronutrients, such as dietary antioxidants or folate, is a major contributor to human cancer and degenerative diseases.

Understanding the role of mitogenesis in mutagenesis is critical for clarifying the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and interpreting high-dose animal cancer tests. High-dose animal cancer tests have been done mainly on synthetic industrial chemicals, yet almost all of the chemicals humans are exposed to are natural. About half of natural chemicals tested in high-dose animal cancer tests are rodent carcinogens, a finding that is consistent with the view that high-dose tests frequently increase mitogenesis rates. Animals have numerous defenses against toxins that make them very well buffered against low doses of almost all toxins, whether synthetic or natural.  相似文献

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