首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   12篇
  完全免费   4篇
  2020年   1篇
  2019年   1篇
  2018年   1篇
  2017年   1篇
  2016年   1篇
  2015年   1篇
  2014年   1篇
  2013年   1篇
  2012年   1篇
  2011年   1篇
  2010年   1篇
  2007年   1篇
  2006年   2篇
  2003年   1篇
  1995年   1篇
排序方式: 共有16条查询结果,搜索用时 105 毫秒
1.
Hosts of obligate avian brood parasites use visual cues to distinguishbetween their own eggs and those of the parasite. Despite majordifferences between human and bird vision, most previous studieson cuckoo egg mimicry estimated color matching based on humancolor vision. Undetected by humans, ultraviolet reflectance(UVR) may play a previously ignored role for rejection behaviorin avian brood parasite systems. We explored this possibilityby manipulating UVR of great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandariuseggs and assessing the response of magpie Pica pica hosts. Wecoated cuckoo eggs with an ultraviolet (UV) light blocker thatreduced UVR but left the human visible reflectance (400–700nm) unaltered. The first control treatment also coated the eggsbut did not alter their reflectance. A second control groupof cuckoo eggs was maintained uncoated to control for handlingeffects on magpie discrimination. We artificially parasitizeda third of a breeding magpie population with each type of experimentalegg and studied the rejection of cuckoo eggs. We failed to findsignificant differences between rejection rate of cuckoo eggswith and without reduced reflectance in the UV region. Our resultsindicate that artificial reduction of UVR of cuckoo eggs doesnot affect the probability of ejection by magpie hosts.  相似文献
2.
Eastern kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) nests rarely are parasitizedby brown-headed cowbirds (Molotrus ater). Kingbirds are oneof a dozen or so species known to eject cowbird eggs from theirnests. We hypothesized that either kingbirds eject cowbird eggsso quickly that researchers normally do not detect the eggsduring daily nest inspections, or that cowbirds avoid parasitizingkingbirds. We tested these alternative hypotheses by experimentallyintroducing real cowbird eggs into eastern kingbird nests duringthe pre-egg, early laying, late laying, and incubation stages.We recorded the interval between "parasitism" and ejection ofthe cowbird eggs. Although kingbirds ejected 87 of 88 cowbirdeggs placed in their nests, about 40% of the eggs remained innests for more than 24 h. Thus, during daily nest inspectionswe should have observed cowbird eggs if nests were parasitizedat all. In fact, we detected only one parasitized nest amongthe 402 inspected daily. The time for ejection was longest atnests parasitized early in laying, and shorter at nests parasitizedbefore and after. This variation in ejection times may reflectthe time kingbirds require to learn to recognize their own eggs.Although kingbirds defend their nests aggressively, they donot respond to female cowbirds as unique threats and do notguard their nests before sunrise when cowbirds lay. We concludethat cowbirds avoid parasitizing eastern kingbirds because theireggs most likely will be wasted. The rejection behavior persistspossibly because it is almost cost-free (a maximum of 0.07 kingbirdegg lost or damaged per cowbird egg ejected), or it evolvedin response to conspecific rather than cowbird parasitism. Foreignkingbird eggs introduced into nests at different nest stageswere ejected only during the pre-egg stage. This result supportsthe hypothesis that rejection behavior in eastern kingbirdsevolved in response to cowbird parasitism.  相似文献
3.
Coevolution of an avian host and its parasitic cuckoo   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Abstract We use a quantitative genetic model to examine the coevolution of host and cuckoo egg characters (termed "size" as a proxy for general appearance), host discrimination, and host and cuckoo population dynamics. A host decides whether to discard an egg using a comparison of the sizes of the eggs in her nest, which changes as host and cuckoo eggs evolve. Specifically, we assume that the probability that she discards the largest egg in her nest depends on how much larger it is than the second largest egg. This decision rule (i.e., the acceptable difference in egg sizes) also evolves, changing both the chance of successful rejection of a cuckoo egg in parasitized nests and the chance of mistaken rejection of a host egg in both parasitized and unparasitized nests. We find a stable equilibrium for coexistence of the host and cuckoo where there is cuckoo egg mimicry, evolutionary displacement of the host egg away from the cuckoo egg phenotype, and host discrimination against unusual eggs. Both host discrimination and host egg displacement are fairly weak at the equilibrium. Cuckoo egg mimicry, although imperfect, usually evolves more extensively and quickly than the responses of the host. Our model provides evidence for both the evolutionary equilibrium and evolutionary lag hypotheses of host acceptance of parasitic eggs.  相似文献
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Rothstein (Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 11, 1982, 229) was one of the first comprehensive studies to examine how different egg features influence egg rejection behaviors of avian brood parasite–hosts. The methods and conclusions of Rothstein (1982) laid the foundation for subsequent experimental brood parasitism studies over the past thirty years, but its results have never been evaluated with replication. Here, we partially replicated Rothstein's (1982) experiments using parallel artificial model egg treatments to simulate cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism in American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests. We compared our data with those of Rothstein (1982) and confirmed most of its original findings: (1) robins reject model eggs that differ from the appearance of a natural robin egg toward that of a natural cowbird egg in background color, size, and maculation; (2) rejection responses were best predicted by model egg background color; and (3) model eggs differing by two or more features from natural robin eggs were more likely to be rejected than model eggs differing by one feature alone. In contrast with Rothstein's (1982) conclusion that American robin egg recognition is not specifically tuned toward rejection of brown‐headed cowbird eggs, we argue that our results and those of other recent studies of robin egg rejection suggest a discrimination bias toward rejection of cowbird eggs. Future work on egg recognition will benefit from utilizing a range of model eggs varying continuously in background color, maculation patterning, and size in combination with avian visual modeling, rather than using model eggs which vary only discretely.  相似文献
9.
In avian brood parasitism, both the host and the parasite are expected to develop various conflicting adaptations; hosts develop a defense against parasitism, such as an ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs that look unlike their own, while parasites evolve egg mimicry to counter this host defense. Hosts may further evolve to generate various egg phenotypes that are not mimicked by parasites. Difference in egg phenotype critically affects the successful reproduction of hosts and parasites. Recent studies have shown that clear polymorphism in egg phenotype is observed in several host–parasite interactions, which suggests that egg polymorphism may be a more universal phenomenon than previously thought. We examined the mechanism for maintaining egg polymorphism in the rufescent prinia (Prinia rufescens) that is parasitized by the plaintive cuckoo (Cacomantis merulinus) from a theoretical viewpoint based on a mathematical model. The prinia has four distinct egg phenotypes: immaculate white, immaculate blue, white with spots, and blue with spots. Only two egg phenotypes, white with spots and blue with spots, are found in the cuckoo population. We show that the observed prinia and cuckoo phenotypes cannot be at an equilibrium and that egg polymorphism can be maintained either at stationary equilibrium or with dynamic, frequency oscillations, depending on the mutation rates of the background color and spottiness. Long‐term monitoring of the prinia–cuckoo interaction over a wide geographic range is needed to test the results of the model analyses.  相似文献
10.
Since obligate avian brood parasites depend completely on the effort of other host species for rearing their progeny, the availability of hosts will be a critical resource for their life history. Circumstantial evidence suggests that intense competition for host species may exist not only within but also between species. So far, however, few studies have demonstrated whether the interspecific competition really occurs in the system of avian brood parasitism and how the nature of brood parasitism is related to their niche evolution. Using the occurrence data of five avian brood parasites from two sources of nationwide bird surveys in South Korea and publically available environmental/climatic data, we identified their distribution patterns and ecological niches, and applied species distribution modeling to infer the effect of interspecific competition on their spatial distribution. We found that the distribution patterns of five avian brood parasites could be characterized by altitude and climatic conditions, but overall their spatial ranges and ecological niches extensively overlapped with each other. We also found that the predicted distribution areas of each species were generally comparable to the realized distribution areas, and the numbers of individuals in areas where multiple species were predicted to coexist showed positive relationships among species. In conclusion, despite following different coevolutionary trajectories to adapt to their respect host species, five species of avian brood parasites breeding in South Korea occupied broadly similar ecological niches, implying that they tend to conserve ancestral preferences for ecological conditions. Furthermore, our results indicated that contrary to expectation interspecific competition for host availability between avian brood parasites seemed to be trivial, and thus, play little role in shaping their spatial distributions and ecological niches. Future studies, including the complete ranges of avian brood parasites and ecological niches of host species, will be worthwhile to further elucidate these issues.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号