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1.
Among the species belonging to 11 genera of Neotropical spittlebugs attacking graminaceous plants, Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is one of the most important pests of grasses in several countries of South America. In this study, we evaluate the influence of three economically relevant species of host plants (Poaceae) on life-cycle traits of N. entreriana. We tested for differences in fitness responses (survival and fecundity) of insects on forage species which are frequent hosts for wild populations of spittlebugs. Comparison of life cycles on three host plants showed that only 2.5% of nymphs completed their development on Zea mays L., 22.5% on Chloris gayana Kunth, and 95% on Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. All the above suggests that C. gayana and B. decumbens are able to sustain complete development, behaving like natural hosts; the latter species is superior for artificial colonies because a shorter developmental period, higher survivorship in nymphs, and longer lifespan of adults were observed. Zea mays did not allow proper development, causing high mortality instead. We also developed a new approach for small-scale breeding of N. entreriana, which will enable subsequent biological and behavioral studies on this important pest species.  相似文献   
2.
  1. A preference experiment was set up with two planthopper species (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to test the influence of competition on host plant choice.
  2. The delphacid Javesella pellucida was chosen as a generalist and the rarer Ribautodelphax imitans as a monophagous specialist, which feeds on the grass, tall fescue Schedonorus arundinaceus.
  3. In the absence of the specialist, the generalist showed a marked preference for tall fescue. In some experiments, however, the introduction of the specialist resulted in a shift of preference to an alternative plant if the specialist was established prior to the introduction of the generalist.
  4. This experiment supports the hypothesis that specialist herbivores can potentially alter the host plant choices of generalists, which may lead to differing host plant use patterns in insect communities.
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The family Tropiduchidae is revised taxonomically comprising five genera and five species from Korea. Catullia vittata Matsumura is redescribed here on the basis of a series of males recently collected in Korea. Cixiopsis punctatus Matsumura and Catullia vittata Matsumura were transferred from Achilidae to Tropiduchidae and are redescribed here with male genitalia for the first time from Korea. Ommatissus binatatus Fieber previously reported was an incorrect identification of Ommatissus lofouensis Muir. Another species, Trypetimorpha koreana Kwon and Lee, is the macropterous form of Trypetimorpha japonica Ishihara. All Korean species of the Tropiduchidae are redescribed and illustrated, and an identification key to the genera of Tropiduchidae is provided.  相似文献   
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Development of farming practices has caused drastic changes in European agricultural landscapes during the past 50 years. As a consequence of these changes, insect diversity is widely expected to decline. We performed a comparative analysis with long‐term data of three insect groups: Auchenorrhyncha, Heteroptera and Orthoptera. In 2009, we revisited nine grassland sites in northern Germany that were originally sampled in 1951 using the same techniques and during a similar time frame. We found that the insect community exhibited no consistent trends between years. Species richness of Auchenorrhyncha and Heteroptera increased on plot level as well as on landscape level but remained unchanged for Orthoptera. Abundance of Auchenorrhyncha and Orthoptera significantly decreased, while Heteroptera increased. There is a strong trend towards homogeneity in community composition for Heteroptera and a weak one for Auchenorrhyncha. The frequency and abundance of species preferring disturbed and/or eutrophic habitats increased, whereas the number of species preferring low‐productive habitats declined. This trend is especially pronounced in Auchenorrhyncha. Generalistic species were more abundant in relative proportions as well as in absolute numbers. We hypothesize that these trends arise from alterations of Central European landscapes because of agricultural intensification over the last several decades.  相似文献   
7.
Cities are growing rapidly, thereby expected to cause a large‐scale global biotic homogenization. Evidence for the homogenization hypothesis is mostly derived from plants and birds, whereas arthropods have so far been neglected. Here, I tested the homogenization hypothesis with three insect indicator groups, namely true bugs, leafhoppers, and beetles. In particular, I was interested whether insect species community composition differs between urban and rural areas, whether they are more similar between cities than between rural areas, and whether the found pattern is explained by true species turnover, species diversity gradients and geographic distance, by non‐native or specialist species, respectively. I analyzed insect species communities sampled on birch trees in a total of six Swiss cities and six rural areas nearby. In all indicator groups, urban and rural community composition was significantly dissimilar due to native species turnover. Further, for bug and leafhopper communities, I found evidence for large‐scale homogenization due to urbanization, which was driven by reduced species turnover of specialist species in cities. Species turnover of beetle communities was similar between cities and rural areas. Interestingly, when specialist species of beetles were excluded from the analyses, cities were more dissimilar than rural areas, suggesting biotic differentiation of beetle communities in cities. Non‐native species did not affect species turnover of the insect groups. However, given non‐native arthropod species are increasing rapidly, their homogenizing effect might be detected more often in future. Overall, the results show that urbanization has a negative large‐scale impact on the diversity specialist species of the investigated insect groups. Specific measures in cities targeted at increasing the persistence of specialist species typical for the respective biogeographic region could help to stop the loss of biodiversity.  相似文献   
8.
Feeding behavior of three leafhopper species – Erythroneura vitis (Harris), Erythroneura ziczac (Walsh), and Erythroneura elegantula (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) – reared on grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Seyval blanc’ (Vitaceae), was investigated using histological techniques and DC‐electrical penetration graphs (DC‐EPG). Histological studies revealed that the Erythroneura species induced white stipples on the leaves and that these leafhoppers produced thin salivary sheaths in grapevine leaf tissues. The DC‐EPG system allowed the characterization of five waveforms associated with stylet penetration and feeding in leaf tissues. These waveforms were characteristic of feeding phases corresponding to epidermis penetration pathway, salivation, and ingestion. We calculated 28 parameters (e.g., number of probes, duration of phases, and time spent in the various tissues) to describe and compare the feeding behavior of the Erythroneura species. We conclude that the three Erythroneura species are mainly mesophyll feeders but may probably also feed in other tissues such as xylem.  相似文献   
9.
A phylogenetic analysis of the leafhopper genus Apogonalia was conducted based on a matrix of 40 terminal taxa and 147 morphological characters. The analysis yielded 1391 equally most‐parsimonious trees, which do not support the monophyly of Apogonalia in the strict consensus. A successive weighting procedure yielded 62 trees in which the genus appeared as a monophyletic group. The strict consensus of these 62 trees is almost entirely dichotomous, showing only two polytomies. The test of phylogenetic integrity was applied for distinct variations of three species: A. germana, A. sanguinipes, and A. histrio. Only for the first species was the conjecture that its variations belong to the same entity corroborated. The best‐supported clade within Apogonalia, which has several synapomorphies and high branch support indices, comprises nine Antillean endemic species. This distributional pattern probably was originated by vicariance in the Late Cretaceous, when the Proto‐Antillean archipelago was pushed north‐eastward by the Caribbean Plate to become the modern Greater Antilles. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 163 , 548–570.  相似文献   
10.
The planthopper subfamily Kermesiinae is revised taxonomically from Korea. Two genera and three species have been recorded in the Korean fauna, among which one species is new to science: Nisia nervosa (Motschulsky 1863), Eponisiella guttulinervis (Matsumura 1914), and Eponisiella andonga sp. nov. These three species are described and illustrated. Key to genus and species are provided.  相似文献   
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