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排序方式: 共有119条查询结果,搜索用时 251 毫秒
1.
药物成瘾及成瘾记忆的研究现状   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
本文在介绍药物成瘾与学习和记忆密切相关的神经回路及共同分子机制的基础上,围绕学习和记忆在药物成瘾中的作用,综述了关联性学习与复吸,关联性学习与敏化,异常关联性学习与强迫性用药行为,关联性学习及成瘾记忆与成瘾,多重记忆系统与成瘾的发生发展等方面的研究进展,并强调了突触可塑性及成瘾记忆在药物成瘾中的重要性。在此基础上提出:作为慢性脑病的药物成瘾的形成过程的重要特征是它包含着信息的特殊学习类型。药物成瘾与依赖于多巴胺的关联性学习紊乱有密切关系。海马可能在成瘾中扮演重要角色。  相似文献
2.
用替代寄主繁殖的川硬皮肿腿蜂的学习行为   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
采用Y型嗅觉仪进行双向选择实验,研究了用替代寄主黄粉虫蛹繁殖的川硬皮肿腿蜂寄主搜索过程中的学习行为。结果表明,川硬皮肿腿蜂羽化期和成虫初期经历松枝皮、松针、松节油、杉枝皮等的挥发物后,雌蜂对这些挥发物的选择性明显提高,但对杉叶挥发物无明显的学习行为。羽化期和成虫初期是否投放新鲜寄主,对雌蜂的气味选择性没有明显的影响。成蜂取食黄粉虫蛹和蜂蜜时均可联系性学习松枝和杉枝气味。取食并经历杉枝和松枝挥发物4天和8天的寄生蜂之间对相应气味的选择性无显著差异。  相似文献
3.
Despite the widespread assumption that the learning abilities of animals are adapted to the particular environments in which they operate, the quantitative effects of learning performance on fitness remain virtually unknown. Here, we evaluate the learning performance of bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris) from multiple colonies in an ecologically relevant associative learning task under laboratory conditions, before testing the foraging performance of the same colonies under the field conditions. We demonstrate that variation in learning speed among bumble-bee colonies is directly correlated with the foraging performance, a robust fitness measure, under natural conditions. Colonies vary in learning speed by a factor of nearly five, with the slowest learning colonies collecting 40% less nectar than the fastest learning colonies. Such a steep fitness function is suggestive of strong selection for higher learning speed. Partial correlation analysis reveals that other factors such as forager body size or colour preference appear to be negligible in our study. Although our study does not directly prove causality of learning on foraging success, our approach of correlating natural within-species variation in these two factors represents a major advance over traditional between-species correlative analyses where comparability can be compromised by the fact that species vary along multiple dimensions.  相似文献
4.
We investigated how the plant‐inhabiting, anthocorid predator, Anthocoris nemoralis, copes with variation in prey, host plant and associated herbivore‐induced plant volatiles and in particular whether the preference for these plant odours is innate or acquired. We found a marked difference between the olfactory response of orchard‐caught predators and that of their first generation reared on flour moth eggs in the laboratory, i.e. under conditions free of herbivory‐induced volatiles. Whereas the orchard‐caught predators preferred odour from psyllid‐infested pear leaves, when offered against clean air in a Y‐tube olfactometer, the laboratory‐reared first generation of (naive) predators did not. The same difference was found when a single component (methyl salicylate) of the herbivore‐induced plant volatiles was offered against clean air. After experiencing methyl salicylate with prey, however, the laboratory‐reared predators showed a pronounced preference for this volatile. This acquired preference did not depend on whether the volatile had been experienced in the juvenile period or in the adult phase, but it did depend on whether it had been offered in presence or absence of prey. In the first case, they were attracted to the plant volatile in subsequent olfactometer experiments, but when the volatile had been offered during a period of prey deprivation, the predators were not attracted. We conclude that associative learning is the most likely mechanism underlying acquired odour preference.  相似文献
5.
Due to the changing behavioral contexts at which social insects are exposed during the adult lifespan, they are ideal models to analyze the effect of particular sensory stimuli during young adulthood on later behavior. Specifically, our goal is to understand early influences on later foraging behavior. For that, olfactory memories were established by worker honeybees to different pre-foraging ages using either (1) classical conditioning in the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm or (2) the offering of scented-sugar solution under different rearing conditions. By testing long-term memories (LTM) through a single PER test in workers of foraging ages (17-25 days), we found that retention of the early olfactory memories in honey bees is age-dependent and not time-dependent. Independently of the environmental conditions in which they were reared (laboratory cages or hives), bees were able to retain food-odor association from 5 days after emergence, but rarely before. In most experiments we observed a bi-modal pattern of response: bees exposed to scented-food at 5-8 and 13-16 days showed better retention than those exposed at 9-12 days. These differences disappeared for bees reared in hives. Retrieval of LTMs depending on the timing and the continuous inputs of appropriate sensory stimuli are discussed.  相似文献
6.
Bilingual and multilingual language processing   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
This chapter addresses the interesting question on the neurolinguistics of bilingualism and the representation of language in the brain in bilingual and multilingual subjects. A fundamental issue is whether the cerebral representation of language in bi- and multilinguals differs from that of monolinguals, and if so, in which specific way. This is an interdisciplinary question which needs to identify and differentiate different levels involved in the neural representation of languages, such as neuroanatomical, neurofunctional, biochemical, psychological and linguistic levels. Furthermore, specific factors such as age, manner of acquisition and environmental factors seem to affect the neural representation. We examined the question whether verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Subjects were Finnish-English adult multilinguals who had acquired the second language after the age of ten. They were PET-scanned whilst either encoding or retrieving word pairs in their mother tongue (Finnish) or in a foreign language (English). Within each language, subjects had to encode and retrieve four sets of 12 visually presented paired word associates which were not semantically related. Two sets consisted of highly imaginable words and the other two sets of abstract words. Presentation of pseudo-words served as a reference condition. An emission scan was recorded after each intravenous administration of O-15 water. Encoding was associated with prefrontal and hippocampal activation. During memory retrieval, precuneus showed a consistent activation in both languages and for both highly imaginable and abstract words. Differential activations were found in Broca's area and in the cerebellum as well as in the angular/supramarginal gyri according to the language used. The findings advance our understanding of the neural representation that underlies multiple language functions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of bi/multilingual language processing. A promising perspective for future bi/multilingual research is an integrative approach using brain imaging studies with a high spatial resolution such as fMRI, combined with techniques with a high temporal resolution, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG).  相似文献
7.
The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-R (TN-R), predominantly expressed in the central nervous system, has been implied in a variety of functions, e.g. during myelination, cerebellar neurite fasciculation and hippocampal long-term potentiation. In this study, we investigated in detail the impact of TN-R deficiency on the living animal by analyzing the behavior of TN-R-deficient mice. The general state, gross sensory functions, reflexes and motoric capabilities appeared normal. In contrast, motor coordination on the rota-rod was compromised in these mice, indicating a deficit in cerebellar functions. In the open field and the hole board, the mutants interact differently with their environment, probably due to differences in their exploratory behavior. TN-R-deficient mice were able to learn a reference memory task in the Morris water maze. In contrast to wild-type mice, the mutants displayed an alternative strategy; swimming around the pool using a stereotypical circling pattern, crossing all possible platform positions after relocation of the escape platform (reversal). These results, confirmed by relocating the platform in the center of the pool, suggest that TN-R-deficient mice may be impaired in constructing a goal-independent representation of space. In addition, a two-way active avoidance test (shuttle box) revealed a severe deficit in associative learning in TN-R-deficient mice. Our results support important functions of TN-R in vivo in the central nervous system, in particular in the cerebellum and the hippocampus.  相似文献
8.
Modeling the effects of enclosure size on geometry learning   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Several recent studies have shown that chickens, fish, and humans trained to find a reward in a corner of a rectangular enclosure with distinctive features rely more on the geometry of the enclosure in small enclosures and rely more on the features in large enclosures. Here, these results are modeled using a recent associative model of geometry learning [Miller, N.Y., Shettleworth, S.J., 2007. Learning about environmental geometry: an associative model. J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. B 33, 191–212]. By adjusting the salience of either geometric or featural information or both the model is capable of reproducing much of the data on the effects of enclosure size on geometry learning.  相似文献
9.
Learning in insects has been extensively studied using different experimental approaches. One of them, the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm, is particularly well suited for quantitative studies of cognitive abilities of honeybees under controlled conditions. The goal of this study was to analyze the capability of three eusocial bee species to be olfactory conditioned in the PER paradigm. We worked with two Brazilian stingless bees species, Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, and with the invasive Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera. These three species present very different recruitment strategies, which could be related with different odor-learning abilities. We evaluated their gustatory responsiveness and learning capability to discriminate floral odors. Gustatory responsiveness was similar for the three species, although S. aff. depilis workers showed fluctuations along the experimental period. Results for the learning assays revealed that M. quadrifasciata workers can be conditioned to discriminate floral odors in a classical differential conditioning protocol and that this discrimination is maintained 15 min after training. During conditioning, Africanized honeybees presented the highest discrimination, for M. quadrifasciata it was intermediate, and S. aff. depilis bees presented no discrimination. The differences found are discussed considering the putative different learning abilities and procedure effect for each species.  相似文献
10.
In aphidophagous systems, trophic interactions between parasitoids and predators, termed intraguild predation, are frequently asymmetric. To mitigate predation risk for themselves and their offspring, intraguild prey may exploit associative learning to gain accurate information about patch quality. Therefore, costs of unnecessary escape behavior are avoided. We used sweet pepper patches (Capsicum annuum L., cv. ‘Mazurka’) (Solanaceae), sustaining Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) or Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) aphids, as a model system to quantify the foraging behaviors of the parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), when confronted with predatory second instar Chrysopa carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). The behavior of predator‐naive or predator‐experienced A. abdominalis foraging in a patch with or without C. carnea was recorded and analyzed using a multiple video observation system. We investigated (i) whether A. abdominalis could learn to detect the presence of a predator in a patch, (ii) the impact of the predator presence on the learning and motor learning of the parasitoid, and (iii) the effects of the aphid species on the guild interactions. Results showed that the presence of, or experience with the predator does not affect A. abdominalis learning or motor learning. We discuss the behavioral and ecological implications of our finding. Overall, predator‐induced aphid mobility increased the frequency and allocation time of Aphelinus oviposition activities, especially when Maeuphorbiae was the host. The predator imposed indirect fitness costs on the parasitoid. Aphelinus abdominalis searched more often and longer, resulting in a tendency towards reduced Maeuphorbiae parasitism rate in patches harboring C. carnea.  相似文献
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