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1.
Nuclear DNA content of some important plant species   总被引:59,自引:0,他引:59  
Nuclear DNA contents of more than 100 important plant species were measured by flow cytometry of isolated nuclei stained with propidium iodide.Arabidopsis exhibits developmentally regulated multiploidy and has a 2C nuclear DNA content of 0.30 pg (145 Mbp/1C), twice the value usually cited. The 2C value for rice is only about three times that ofArabidopsis. Tomato has a 2C value of about 2.0 pg, larger than commonly cited. This survey identified several horticultural crops in a variety of families with genomes only two or three times as large asArabidopsis; these include several fruit trees (a pricot, cherry, mango, orange, papaya, and peach). The small genome sizes of rice and the horticultural plants should facilitate molecular studies of these crops.  相似文献
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Regulation of auxin transport by aminopeptidases and endogenous flavonoids   总被引:45,自引:0,他引:45  
Murphy A  Peer WA  Taiz L 《Planta》2000,211(3):315-324
 The 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-binding protein is a putative negative regulator of polar auxin transport that has been shown to block auxin efflux from both whole plant tissues and microsomal membrane vesicles. We previously showed that NPA is hydrolyzed by plasma-membrane amidohydrolases that co-localize with tyrosine, proline, and tryptophan-specific aminopeptidases (APs) in the cotyledonary node, hypocotyl-root transition zone and root distal elongation zone of Arabidopsisthaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings. Moreover, amino acyl-β-naphthylamide (aa-NA) conjugates resembling NPA in structure have NPA-like inhibitory activity on growth, suggesting a possible role of APs in NPA action. Here we report that the same aa-NA conjugates and the AP inhibitor bestatin also block auxin efflux from seedling tissue. Bestatin and, to a lesser extent, some aa-NA conjugates were more effective inhibitors of low-affinity specific [3H]NPA-binding than were the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol but had no effect on high-affinity binding. Since the APs are inhibited by flavonoids, we compared the localization of endogenous flavonoids and APs in seedling tissue. A correlation between AP and flavonoid localization was found in 5- to 6-d-old seedlings. Evidence that these flavonoids regulate auxin accumulation in vivo was obtained using the flavonoid-deficient mutant, tt4. In whole-seedling [14C]indole-3-acetic acid transport studies, the pattern of auxin distribution in the tt4 mutant was shown to be altered. The defect appeared to be in auxin accumulation, as a considerable amount of auxin escaped from the roots. Treatment of the tt4 mutant with the missing intermediate naringenin restored normal auxin distribution and accumulation by the root. These results implicate APs and endogenous flavonoids in the regulation of auxin efflux. Received: 2 December 1999 / Accepted: 16 January 2000  相似文献
4.
Plant DNA methyltransferases   总被引:43,自引:0,他引:43  
DNA methylation is an important modification of DNA that plays a role in genome management and in regulating gene expression during development. Methylation is carried out by DNA methyltransferases which catalyse the transfer of a methyl group to bases within the DNA helix. Plants have at least three classes of cytosine methyltransferase which differ in protein structure and function. The METI family, homologues of the mouse Dnmt1 methyltransferase, most likely function as maintenance methyltransferases, but may also play a role in de novo methylation. The chromomethylases, which are unique to plants, may preferentially methylate DNA in heterochromatin; the remaining class, with similarity to Dnmt3 methyltransferases of mammals, are putative de novo methyltransferases. The various classes of methyltransferase may show differential activity on cytosines in different sequence contexts. Chromomethylases may preferentially methylate cytosines in CpNpG sequences while the Arabidopsis METI methyltransferase shows a preference for cytosines in CpG sequences. Additional proteins, for example DDM1, a member of the SNF2/SWI2 family of chromatin remodelling proteins, are also required for methylation of plant DNA.  相似文献
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Summary We have screened a large population of M2 seeds ofArabidopsis thaliana for plants which are resistant to exogenously applied indole-acetic acid (IAA). One of the resistant lines identified in this screen carries a dominant mutation which we have namedaxr2. Linkage analysis indicates that theaxr2 gene lies on chromosome 3. Plants carrying theaxr2 mutation are severe dwarfs and display defects in growth orientation of both the shoot and root suggesting that the mutation affects some aspect of gravitropic growth. In addition, the roots ofaxr2 plants lack root hairs. Growth inhibition experiments indicate that the roots ofaxr2 plants are resistant to ethylene and abscisic acid as well as auxin.  相似文献
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Directed excision of a transgene from the plant genome   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
Summary The effectiveness of loxP-Cre directed excision of a transgene was examined using phenotypic and molecular analyses. Two methods of combining the elements of this system, re-transformation and cross pollination, were found to produce different degrees of excision in the resulting plants. Two linked traits, -glucuronidase (GUS) and a gene encoding sulfonylurea-resistant acetolactate synthase (ALSr), were integrated into the genome of tobacco and Arabidopsis. The ALSr gene, bounded by loxP sites, was used as the selectable marker for transformation. The directed loss of the ALST gene through Cre-mediated excision was demonstrated by the loss of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides and by Southern blot analysis. The -glucuronidase gene remained active. The excision efficiency varied in F1 progeny of different lox and Cre parents and was correlated with the Cre parent. Many of the lox × Cre F1 progeny were chimeric and some F2 progeny retained resistance to sulfonylureas. Re-transformation of lox/ALS/lox/GUS tobacco plants with cre led to much higher efficiency of excision. Lines of tobacco transformants carrying the GUS gene but producing only sulfonylurea-sensitive progeny were obtained using both approaches for introducing cre. Similarly, Arabidopsis lines with GUS activity but no sulfonylurea resistance were generated using cross pollinations.  相似文献
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Summary Monogenic mutants of the early ecotype Landsberg erecta were selected on the basis of late flowering under long day (LD) conditions after treatment with ethyl methanesulphonate or irradiation. In addition to later flowering the number of rosette and cauline leaves is proportionally higher in all mutants, although the correlation coefficient between the two parameters is not the same for all genotypes. Forty-two independently induced mutants were found to represent mutations at 11 loci. The mutations were either recessive, intermediate (co locus) or almost completely dominant (fwa locus). The loci are located at distinct positions on four of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes. Recombinants carrying mutations at different loci flower later than or as late as the later parental mutant. This distinction led to the assignment of eight of the loci to three epistatic groups. In wild type, vernalization promotes flowering to a small extent. For mutants at the loci fca, fve, fy and fpa, vernalization has a large effect both under LD and short day (SD) conditions, whereas co, gi, fd and fwa mutants are almost completely insensitive to this treatment. SD induces later flowering except for mutants at the co and gi loci, which flower with the same number of leaves under LD and SD conditions. This differential response of the mutants to environmental factors and their subdivision into epistatic groups is discussed in relation to a causal model for floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.  相似文献
8.
Cloning and characterization of a cold-and ABA-inducible Arabidopsis gene   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
We have identified by differential screening a novel Arabidopsis thaliana gene, called kin1, which is induced at +44 °C. The nucleotide sequences of both the genomic clone and the corresponding cDNA were determined. The deduced 6.5 kDa polypeptide has an unusual amino acid composition being rich in alanine, glycine and lysine. The gene belongs to a family of at least two genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that the level of kin1 mRNA is increased 20-fold in cold-treated plants. In addition to being expressed in cold, kin1 mRNAlso induced by water stress and the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) which has been suggested to be a common mediator for osmotic stress responses and cold acclimation in plants. Sequence comparisons showed that the kin1 gene product has similarities to fish antifreeze proteins (AFPs).  相似文献
9.
盐胁迫过程中抗坏血酸对植物的保护功能   总被引:36,自引:8,他引:28  
以拟南芥抗坏血酸突变体 vtc- 1 和野生型 wt 为材料 ,研究了抗氧化系统对盐胁迫的响应机制 ,以揭示抗坏血酸 ASA 的抗氧化机理及对植物的保护功能 .结果显示 :10 0 mm ol/ L Na Cl处理 12、2 4、4 8、72 h,vtc- 1和 wt体内 MDA 丙二醛 及 H2 O2 过氧化氢 的含量均明显增加 ,但 vtc- 1增加的程度明显高于 wt,说明盐胁迫可能对vtc- 1造成了更严重的氧化伤害 .胁迫过程中 ,wt体内的几种抗氧化酶 [超氧化物歧化酶 SOD 、过氧化氢酶 CAT 、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶 APX ]活性均升高 ,而 vtc- 1体内 SOD、CAT活性降低 ,APX活性在胁迫 2 4 h之前增加 ,2 4 h之后降低 ;同时 ,vtc- 1中总的抗坏血酸含量和还原型谷胱甘肽 /氧化型谷胱甘肽 GSH/ GSSG 的比值下降 ,而 wt与此相反 .本研究表明 :抗坏血酸参与活性氧 AOS 的代谢 ,减轻 AOS对植物的伤害 ;并可能对植物细胞内的抗氧化酶具有调节作用 ,增强逆境胁迫下植物的抗逆能力 ,对植物有重要的生物学保护功能  相似文献
10.
Efficient discovery of DNA polymorphisms in natural populations by Ecotilling   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
We have adapted the mutation detection technology used in Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) to the discovery of polymorphisms in natural populations. The genomic DNA of a queried individual is mixed with a reference DNA and used to amplify a target 1-kbp region of DNA with asymmetrically labeled fluorescent primers. After heating and annealing, heteroduplexes are nicked at mismatched sites by the endonuclease CEL I and cut strands are visualized using Li-cor gel analyzers. Putative polymorphisms detected in one fluorescence channel can be verified by appearance of the opposite cut strand in the other channel. We demonstrated the efficiency of this technology, called Ecotilling, by the discovery in 150+ individuals of 55 haplotypes in five genes, ranging from sequences differing by a single nucleotide polymorphism to those representing complex haplotypes. The discovered polymorphisms were confirmed by sequencing and included base-pair changes, small insertions and deletions, and variation in microsatellite repeat number. Ecotilling allows the rapid detection of variation in many individuals and is cost effective because only one individual for each haplotype needs to be sequenced. The technology is applicable to any organism including those that are heterozygous and polyploid.  相似文献
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