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1.
Survivin as a target for new anticancer interventions   总被引:66,自引:0,他引:66  
Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, that has been implicated in both control of cell division and inhibition of apoptosis. Specifically, its anti-apoptotic function seems to be related to the ability to directly or indirectly inhibit caspases. Survivin is selectively expressed in the most common human neoplasms and appears to be involved in tumor cell resistance to some anticancer agents and ionizing radiation. On the basis of these findings survivin has been proposed as an attractive target for new anticancer interventions. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that down-regulation of survivin expression/function, accomplished through the use of antisense oligonucleotides, dominant negative mutants, ribozymes, small interfering RNAs and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, increased the apoptotic rate, reduced tumor-growth potential and sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs with different action mechanisms and gamma-irradiation in in vitro and in vivo models of different human tumor types.  相似文献
2.
自由基与细胞凋亡   总被引:60,自引:1,他引:59       下载免费PDF全文
细胞凋亡是指细胞在生理和病理情况下的一种死亡模式,广泛涉及到肿瘤、衰老和退行性病变等一系列疾病.最近有实验表明自由基与细胞凋亡有密切的关系.凋亡细胞内活性氧自由基(ROS)生成增加,同时消除ROS的能力下降.大多数凋亡障碍的细胞表现出ROS分子大量减少,若调节细胞内ROS含量,死亡率能随之改变;离子辐射能通过经自由基引起细胞的凋亡,培养细胞在无血清或撤除生长因子后发生的死亡也大多与细胞内自由基代谢酶如过氧化氢酶等的活性变化有关.提示自由基是参与调节细胞凋亡的重要因素之一.  相似文献
3.
Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Survivin has been reported to be expressed in many cancers, but not in differentiated normal tissue. Recent studies revealed that survivin correlated with the chemo-resitance of cancer cells. In the present study, the changes in expression levels of survivin messenger RNA (mRNA) and survivin protein in a gastric cancer cell line (MKN-45) during cisplatin (CDDP) treatment were analyzed and compared with the occurrence of apoptotic cell death. Cell growth was inhibited even with a low dose CDDP (0.1 or 1 g/ml) 1 hr treatment. However, the percentage of apoptotic cells did not change after 48 hr incubation with low dose CDDP. Only with high dose CDDP (10 g/ml), did the percentage of apoptotic cells explosively increase between 12 and 24 hr treatment. Relative expression levels of survivin mRNA and survivin protein increased after CDDP treatment. The cell expression rates of survivin mRNA after 48 hr treatment with 0.1 and 1 g/ml of CDDP were 2 to 6 fold higher than that of the survivin mRNA of untreated cells. Also, the relative cell expression level of survivin protein after 24 hr treatment with 0.1 or 1 g/ml of CDDP was 3 to 6.5 fold higher than that of the survivin protein of untreated cells. These results indicate that survivin expression may correlate with the chemo-resistance of malignant cells.  相似文献
4.
线粒体,活性氧和细胞凋亡   总被引:57,自引:1,他引:56       下载免费PDF全文
在能量代谢和自由基代谢中,线粒体均占据着十分重要的地位.通过呼吸链电子漏途径,线粒体产生大量超氧阴离子,并通过链式反应形成对机体有损伤作用的活性氧.通过呼吸链电子漏,氧化磷酸化解偶联,线粒体内膜产生通透性转变孔道(PTP)及Box-和/或PTP-介导的细胞色素c向胞质的转移等种种因素,线粒体参与一般抗氧化防御及细胞凋亡等重要生理过程的调控.在与线粒体相关的细胞凋亡中,活性氧的信号作用是十分明显的.  相似文献
5.
Opening of high conductance permeability transition pores in mitochondria initiates onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The MPT is a causative event, leading to necrosis and apoptosis in hepatocytes after oxidative stress, Ca(2+) toxicity, and ischemia/reperfusion. CsA blocks opening of permeability transition pores and protects cell death after these stresses. In contrast to necrotic cell death which is a consequence of ATP depletion, ATP is required for the development of apoptosis. Reperfusion and the return of normal pH after ischemia initiate the MPT, but the balance between ATP depletion after the MPT and ATP generation by glycolysis determines whether the fate of cells will be apoptotic or necrotic death. Thus, the MPT is a common pathway leading to both necrotic and apoptotic cell death after ischemia/reperfusion.  相似文献
6.
Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis prevented by trolox   总被引:45,自引:0,他引:45  
The ability of oxidative stress to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the effect of Trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog, on this induction were studied in vitro in mouse thymocytes. Cells were exposed to oxidative stress by treating them with 0.5–10 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 10 min, in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1 mM ferrous sulfate. Cells were resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium with 10% serum and incubated at 37°C under 5% CO2 in air. Electron microscopic studies revealed morphological changes characteritic of apoptosis in H2O2-treated fragmented the DNA in a manner typical of apoptotic cells, producing a ladder pattern of 200 base pair increments upon agarose gel electrophoresis. The percentage of DNA fragmentation (determined fluorometrically) increased with increasing doses of H2O2 and postexposure incubation times. Pre- or posttreatment of cells with Trolox reduced H2O2-induced DNA fragmentation to control levels and below. The results indicate that oxidative stress induces apoptosis in thymocytes, and this induction can be prevented by Trolox, a powerful inhibitor of membrane damage.  相似文献
7.
To test the role of ER luminal environment in apoptosis, we generated HeLa cell lines inducible with respect to calreticulin and calnexin and investigated their sensitivity to drug-dependent apoptosis. Overexpression of calreticulin, an ER luminal protein, resulted in an increased sensitivity of the cells to both thapsigargin- and staurosporine-induced apoptosis. This correlated with an increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Overexpression of calnexin, an integral ER membrane protein, had no significant effect on drug-induced apoptosis. In contrast, calreticulin-deficient cells were significantly resistant to apoptosis and this resistance correlated with a decreased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and low levels of caspase 3 activity. This work indicates that changes in the lumen of the ER amplify the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and increase caspase activity, during drug-induced apoptosis. There may be communication between the ER and mitochondria, which may involve Ca(2+) and play an important role in conferring cell sensitivity to apoptosis. Apoptosis may depend on both the presence of external apoptosis-activating signals, and, as shown in this study, on an internal factor represented by the ER.  相似文献
8.
Caspase Family Proteases and Apoptosis   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential physiological process that plays a critical role in development and tissue homeostasis. The progress of apoptosis is regulated in an orderly way by a series of signal cascades under certain circumstances. The caspase-cascade system plays vital roles in the induction, transduction and amplification of intracellular apoptotic signals. Caspases, closely associated with apoptosis, are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases and members of the interleukin- 1 ~-converting enzyme family. The activation and function of caspases, involved in the delicate caspase-cascade system, are regu- lated by various kinds of molecules, such as the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, Bcl-2 family proteins, calpain, and Ca^2+. Based on the latest research, the members of the caspase family, caspase-cascade system and caspase-regulating molecules involved in apoptosis are reviewed.  相似文献
9.
Bcl-2 protects against both apoptotic and necrotic death induced by several cerebral insults. We and others have previously demonstrated that defective herpes simplex virus vectors expressing Bcl-2 protect against various insults in vitro and in vivo, including cerebral ischemia. Because the infarct margin may be a region that is most amenable to treatment, we first determined whether gene transfer to the infarct margin is possible using a focal ischemia model. Since ischemic injury with and without reperfusion may occur by different mechanisms, we also determined whether Bcl-2 protects against focal cerebral ischemic injury either with or without reperfusion in rats. Bax expression, cytochrome c translocation and activated caspase-3 expression were also assessed. Viral vectors overexpressing Bcl-2 were delivered to the infarct margin. Reperfusion resulted in larger infarcts than permanent occlusion. Bcl-2 overexpression significantly improved neuron survival in both ischemia models. Bcl-2 overexpression did not alter overall Bax expression, but inhibited cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Thus, we provide the first evidence that gene transfer to the infarct margin is feasible, that overexpression of Bcl-2 protects against damage to the infarct margin induced by ischemia with and without reperfusion, and that Bcl-2 overexpression using gene therapy attenuates apoptosis-related proteins. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for stroke.  相似文献
10.
Survivin inhibits apoptosis during development and carcinogenesis and is absent in differentiated cells. To determine whether survivin inhibition induces cell death in neural tumor cells, survivin antisense oligonucleotides (SAO) were administered to a human neuroblastoma (MSN) and an oligodendroglioma (TC620) resulting in a dose-dependent reduction in survivin protein. Although 74% of the SAO-treated MSN cells were trypan blue(+), PARP cleavage or activated caspase-3 was not observed. However nuclear translocation of AIF occurred and XIAP increased dramatically. Co-administration of z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) with SAO did not inhibit cell death suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death. Propidium iodide (PI) staining revealed multiple large macronuclei with no apoptotic bodies supporting a role for survivin in cell division. By contrast, while 70% of the SAO-treated TC620 cells were trypan blue(+), PARP was cleaved, cells were TUNEL(+) and PI-staining revealed macronuclei and numerous apoptotic bodies. Co-treatment of the TC620 cells with SAO and zVAD-fmk blocked cell death. While no macronuclei or apoptotic bodies were observed there was a two-fold increase in metaphase cells. Our results suggest that survivin inhibition decreases the viability of human neural tumor cells and as a result of mitotic catastrophe, cell death can be initiated by either a classic apoptotic mechanism or a caspase-independent mechanism.  相似文献
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