首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   20篇
  完全免费   4篇
  2020年   1篇
  2019年   4篇
  2018年   1篇
  2016年   2篇
  2015年   2篇
  2014年   1篇
  2013年   1篇
  2012年   1篇
  2010年   2篇
  2009年   4篇
  2008年   1篇
  2007年   1篇
  1996年   2篇
  1993年   1篇
排序方式: 共有24条查询结果,搜索用时 48 毫秒
1.
The evolution of comparative cognition: Is the snark still a boojum?   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
In “The Snark is a Boojum”, Beach [Beach, F.A., 1950. The snark was a boojum. American Psychologist. 5, 115–124] famously asserted that animal psychology embraced too few species and too few problems to deserve the name comparative. Later in the 20th century, others [e.g. Kamil, A.C., 1988. A synthetic approach to the study of animal intelligence. In: Leger, D.W. (Ed.), Comparative Perspectives in Modern Psychology. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, vol. 35. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, pp. 230–257; Shettleworth, S.J., 1993. Where is the comparison in comparative cognition? Alternative research programs. Psychological Science. 4, 179–184] expressed similar concerns about the new subfield of comparative cognition, suggesting that a more biological approach to choice of species and problems was needed to balance a dominant anthropocentrism. The last 10–15 years have seen many new developments, and a recent survey like Beach’s reveals a very different picture. Not only are many more species being studied, contributions by researchers from different backgrounds are increasing, and research on comparative cognition is better connected with developmental psychology, behavioral neuroscience, primatology, behavioral ecology, and other fields. Contemporary research addresses three major aspects of cognition about equally: basic processes, physical cognition, and social cognition. This article describes a selected research program from each area, chosen to exemplify current trends and challenges for the field.  相似文献
2.
A distinction is made between two definitions of animal cognition: the one most frequently employed in cognitive sciences considers cognition as extracting and processing information; a more phenomenologically inspired model considers it as attributing to a form of the outside world a significance, linked to the state of the animal. The respective fields of validity of these two models are discussed along with the limitations they entail, and the questions they pose to evolutionary biologists are emphasized. This is followed by a presentation of a general overview of what might be the study of the evolution of knowledge in animals.  相似文献
3.
Natural conceptual discriminations have been tested in many different species, including pigeons and a variety of non-human primates. The ability of four male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) to learn and use the natural concept ‘squirrel monkey’ was investigated in this study. After a training phase, subjects were presented with novel stimuli in transfer and test trials. All subjects performed at a rate significantly above chance on the first test trial (p<.001), indicating that squirrel monkeys can utilize natural concepts in the laboratory.  相似文献
4.
Pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample task in which they had to respond to a different choice stimulus following the same durations (2 or 10 s) of two different signals. The duration signals consisted of a white light presented from the ceiling and a red light presented from the front wall. Subsequent test performance indicated that matching accuracy declined (1) when the set of choice stimuli following a duration signal differed from the set presented during training, and (2) when the color or location of the duration signal was changed from values used during training. These results are discussed in terms of attention to uninformative features of a visual stimulus.  相似文献
5.
6.
7.
The eminent psychophysicist, S.S. Stevens, once remarked that, “the basic problem of psychology was the definition of the stimulus” (Stevens, 1951, p. 46). By expanding the traditional definition of the stimulus, the study of animal learning has metamorphosed into animal cognition. The main impetus for that change was the recognition that it is often necessary to postulate a representation between the traditional S and R of learning theory. Representations allow a subject to represent a stimulus it learned previously that is currently absent. Thus, in delayed matching-to-sample, one has to assume that a subject responds to a representation of the sample during test if it responds correctly. Other examples, to name but a few, include concept formation, spatial memory, serial memory, learning a numerical rule, imitation and metacognition. Whereas a representation used to be regarded as a mentalistic phenomenon that was unworthy of scientific inquiry, it can now be operationally defined. To accommodate representations, the traditional discriminative stimulus has to be expanded to allow for the role of representations. The resulting composite can account for a significantly larger portion of the variance of performance measures than the exteroceptive stimulus could by itself.  相似文献
8.
Pine siskins (Carduelis pinus) frequently forage at known high quality food supplies such as backyard feeders. In this field study, pine siskins visited backyard feeders of differing colour and spatial position. The three feeders contained varying amounts of food in a ratio of 3:2:1. The birds quickly distributed their visits in this ratio to the three feeders. During unbaited tests, two feeders on a given day had their positions swapped. The siskins appeared to primarily use both large-scale spatial or distal cues when foraging as well as local colour cues.  相似文献
9.
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号