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1.
On the changing ecology of Venice lagoon   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
The amplexial morphology of representative species from all anostracan families is described. Males of the Polyartemiidae and Artemiidae amplex the female's brood pouch. Males of all other families amplex the female's body between the brood pouch and the last pair of legs: a region referred to herein as the `amplexial groove.' The amplexial groove in females of Streptocephalus, Thamnocephalus, Dendrocephalus, Branchinella, and the Branchipodidae is unornamented and females are not separable among the species. Females in the genus Parartemia and the families Chirocephalidae and Linderiellidae have morphological characters within their amplexial region that complement the ornamentation of the male's second antennae, creating a `lock and key' fit unique to each species.  相似文献
2.
Variation in the social environment produces selection on morphologicaland behavioral traits. It is less clear how the social environmentgenerates variation in demography through behavioral mechanisms.Theory suggests that one aspect of social environment, relativeabundance of heterospecifics, influences the intensity of reproductiveinterference and its demographic effects. These effects arecountered by species recognition and female preferences. Westudied the effects of social environment on reproductive successin replicated, mixed breeding populations of two ranid frogs,Rana latastei and Rana dalmatina, the former being of internationalconservation concern. We manipulated the social environmentof female R. latastei experimentally by varying the relativeabundance of potential conspecific and heterospecific sexualpartners. We measured amplexus frequency and recorded the reproductivesuccess of R. latastei females. When conspecific males wererelatively uncommon, (1) the absolute and relative frequenciesof conspecific amplexus decreased, indicating a breakdown ofsexual isolation, (2) oviposition was less frequent, and (3)the percentage of viable embryos in deposited clutches decreased.R. latastei females in an environment of low relative conspecificabundance (1:5, R. Latastei:R. dalmatina) demonstrated 6.8%the reproductive success of females in an environment exclusivelywith conspecifics. We present a model for the dependence ofconspecific amplexus on the social environment. We discuss severalmechanisms that may influence reproduction by R. latastei, andwe support conservation of the species' preferred habitat toreduce opportunities for reproductive interference that occurat shared breeding sites.  相似文献
3.
通过比较抱对和非抱对普通东方小蛙(Crinia signifera) 的吻尾干骨长(体长) 和检测个体较大或状态较好的雄体是否为成功繁殖个体, 检测雌蛙体长与交配成功的雄蛙的体长和相对状态(体重/体长) 之间是否存在线形关系, 评估交配与个体大小之间的关系。在实验室内, 令未交配雌体选择随机选出的雄体, 观测雌体是否与最大的雄体交配; 将抱对的蛙暴露于其它雄蛙, 观测其它较大或较小的雄蛙是否取代已抱对的雄蛙。结果表明: 抱对雄蛙和雌蛙的个体大小无显著的关系, 成功交配的雄蛙并不比未交配的雄蛙大, 其它雄蛙不能取代已抱对的雄蛙。在这一C. signifera种群中, 繁殖盛期雄性个体的大小似乎不影响交配成功率, 在此期间即便存在配偶选择, 亦决定于与雄性个体大小无关的其它因素。在更长的繁殖期内, 雄性个体大小则与交配成功率有关, 这是该种的典型特征。  相似文献
4.
The brood cycle in anostracans results from the overlapping of two successive reproductive cycles in the genital tract of females. While a clutch of oocytes begins to mature at the ovaries (ovarian period), the nauplii, cysts or unfertilised products of a previous clutch are developing in the ovisac or being released to the medium (oviduct-ovisac period). Models are proposed for the sequence of stages and their duration in a complete brood cycle under two treatments, i.e., females with males (1:1 ratio), and isolated virginal females of Artemia persimilis in laboratory conditions. The whole brood cycle in both treatments took 6 days, however, they differed in the duration of some stages. The differences are discussed and observations on amplexus are added.  相似文献
5.
In anuran amphibians, multiple males amplexing a single female to fertilise her eggs has been found for less than 25 species, whereas matings without amplexus are known for less than five species. Here we provide a new example of simultaneous polyandry with multiple males not engaged in amplexus, in Feirana taihangnicus, a stream-dwelling, explosive breeder endemic to central China. Laboratory experiments showed that when one female was kept with one male in a vessel with elevated, flat stones, the female stood on her head with her swollen cloaca against the undersurface of the stone substrate to lay eggs (clutch size ranged from 371 to 533, n = 7 females). Then, 10–102 min after oviposition began, the male stood on his head and released sperm over the eggs distributed as a single layer on the stone surfaces. It took about 3 h for the female to finish oviposition and for the male to finish fertilisation. On average, 96% of eggs were fertilised. In natural oviposition habitats, stream sections with slow flowing, we observed that 1 up to 15 males (8.7 ± 6.6, n = 6 cases), none in amplexus, participated in fertilising the eggs deposited by a single female. Evolutionary implications of this unusual reproductive strategy remain to be explored.  相似文献
6.
Male-biased sexual dimorphism in hind limb muscles is widespread in anuran species where scramble competition is common among males. Such sexual difference is thought to result from sexual selection. In this view, we tested the differences in muscle mass between the sexes and between amplectant and non-amplectant males by quantifying the mass of four hindlimb muscles (triceps femoris, sartorius, gracilis and plantaris longus) of females and males of Odorrana schmackeri. The results showed that females significantly exceeded males for muscle triceps femoris, gracilis, plantaris longus and total mass when controlled for body size. There are no significant differences between amplectant and non-amplectant males. It is probable that the maintenance of the amplectant position in O. schmackeri may depend on the strength of hindlimb muscles in females to support the pair.  相似文献
7.
The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (P < 0.05) in those that were hibernated than in those that were nonhibernated (54.0% and 33.3%, respectively), but most males in each group (93.3% and 75%, respectively) produced sperm in response to LHRHa treatment. Only one 2-yr-old and two 3-yr-old females produced eggs. At 4 yr of age, eight females produced eggs, but two died from egg retention. More nonhibernated than hibernated females developed eggs (7 of 10 vs. 1 of 10, P < 0.05). Mean (±SD) weight of female toads producing eggs (58.9 ± 11.9 g) was greater (P < 0.05) than that of nonproducing females (43.6 ± 7.0 g). Similarly, four of seven nonhibernated females (58.8 ± 8.3 g) produced eggs at 5 yr of age. All eggs were produced by females treated once with LHRHa. Number of eggs per female varied (141 to 3307), and development to tadpoles was low (0 to 36.5%), although tadpoles did become toadlets. In conclusion, male and female boreal toads matured at 2 and 4 yr of age, respectively, and heavier females were more likely to produce eggs. To enhance breeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.  相似文献
8.
繁殖期雌性凹耳蛙(Odorrana tormota)的声信号已有过深入的研究,但目前国内对其交配行为研究较少,近距离时,雌性凹耳蛙如何与雄蛙交流并完成抱对尚不清楚。为探究繁殖期雌性凹耳蛙与雄蛙近距离交流、交配过程,采用焦点动物取样法和全事件取样法对雌性凹耳蛙交配前行为进行记录。2013至2016年及2018年记录并分析了49组雌雄蛙抱对过程和42组未抱对个体的视频数据。结果表明,凹耳蛙雌蛙与雄蛙近距离交流过程涉及多种信号,包括视觉信号(眨眼、低头、腹部膨胀、脚趾震动、背转向雄蛙)与声信号两类;在每组雌蛙发出信号且抱对成功的实验中,各视觉信号出现1或2次较多,声信号出现1至3次较多,眨眼、鸣声、腹部膨胀三种信号的总次数较多;5个繁殖期所记录的雌蛙交流信号中视觉信号所占的比例均高于声信号。统计分析结果显示,同一只雌蛙在抱对成功与失败时所发出的眨眼、低头和腹部膨胀三种视觉信号的次数存在显著性差异(P < 0.05),声信号、腹部膨胀、脚趾震动和背转向雄蛙这四种信号仅在抱对成功时出现。因此,推测这些信号在抱对前出现时,有助于提高雌雄凹耳蛙抱对成功率。  相似文献
9.
Sexual selection theory predicts a trade‐off between premating (ornaments and armaments) and postmating (testes and ejaculates) sexual traits, assuming that growing and maintaining these traits is costly and that total reproductive investments are limited. The number of males in competition, the reproductive gains from investing in premating sexual traits, and the level of sperm competition are all predicted to influence how males allocate their finite resources to these traits. Yet, empirical examination of these predictions is currently scarce. Here, we studied relative expenditure on pre‐ and postmating sexual traits among frog species varying in their population density, operational sex ratio, and the number of competing males for each clutch of eggs. We found that the intensifying struggle to monopolize fertilizations as more and more males clasp the same female to fertilize her eggs shifts male reproductive investment toward sperm production and away from male weaponry. This shift, which is mediated by population density and the associated level of male–male competition, likely also explains the trade‐off between pre‐ and postmating sexual traits in our much broader sample of anuran species. Our results highlight the power of such a multilevel approach in resolving the evolution of traits and allocation trade‐offs.  相似文献
10.
Trade‐offs between pre‐ and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth. Here, we focused on the factors affecting postcopulatory fertilization success during group spawning, using paternity data from natural choruses. Competitive fertilization success depended on the time spent amplexed and amplexus position. Relative testes size but not arm girth, contributed to fertilization success, but the effect of testes size depended on amplexus position. Our findings offer within species empirical support for recent sperm competition models that incorporate precopulatory male–male competition, and show why an understanding of the evolution of animal weapons requires a consideration of both pre‐ and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection.  相似文献
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