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Body shape is a difficult, but important, trait to quantify. Researchers have traditionally used multivariate analysis of several linear measures ('trusses') across the body form to quantify shape. Newer geometric morphometric methods claim to better estimate shape because they analyze the geometry among the locations of all landmarks simultaneously rather than the linear distances between pairs of landmarks. We tested this claim by comparing the results of several traditional morphometric analyses against a newer geometric analysis involving thin-plate splines (TPS), all applied to a common data set of morphologically variable new world cichlids Amphilophus citrinellus and A. zaliosus. The TPS method yielded slightly stronger evidence of morphological differences among forms, although traditional methods also distinguished the two species. Perhaps our most important result was the idiosyncratic interpretation of shape variation among the traditional truss-based methods, whereas the generation of deformation grids using the TPS approach yielded clear and visually interpretable figures. Our results indicate that geometric morphometrics can be a more effective way to analyze and interpret body form, but also that traditional methods can be relied upon to provide statistical evidence of shape differences, although not necessarily accurate information about the nature of variation in shape.  相似文献
2.
The spectacular species richness of cichlids and their diversity in morphology, coloration, and behavior have made them an ideal model for the study of speciation and adaptive evolution. Hypertrophic lips evolved repeatedly and independently in African and Neotropical cichlid radiations. Cichlids with hypertrophic lips forage predominantly in rocky crevices and it has been hypothesized that mechanical stress caused by friction could result in larger lips through phenotypic plasticity. To test the influence of the environment on the size and development of lips, we conducted a series of breeding and feeding experiments on Midas cichlids. Full‐sibs of Amphilophus labiatus (thick‐lipped) and Amphilophus citrinellus (thin‐lipped) each were split into a control group which was fed food from the water column and a treatment group whose food was fixed to substrates. We found strong evidence for phenotypic plasticity on lip area in the thick‐lipped species, but not in the thin‐lipped species. Intermediate phenotypic values were observed in hybrids from thick‐ and thin‐lipped species reared under “control” conditions. Thus, both a genetic, but also a phenotypic plastic component is involved in the development of hypertrophic lips in Neotropical cichlids. Moreover, species‐specific adaptive phenotypic plasticity was found, suggesting that plasticity is selected for in recent thick‐lipped species.  相似文献
3.
In the colour‐polymorphic Midas cichlid fish species complex (Amphilophus citrinellus spp.), gold morphs occur at much lower frequencies (< 10%) than dark individuals. This might be surprising because gold coloration is dominant and coded for by a single Mendelian locus. Furthermore, gold individuals are considered to be competitively advantaged over dark ones because they grow faster and win aggressive encounters more often compared to dark individuals of equal size. However, one might expect a cost of being gold in terms of natural selection as a result of predation. We tested whether the Jaguar cichlid (Parachromis managuensis), a major fish predator of Midas cichlids, preys differentially on colour variants of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus), which were used as a proxy for Midas cichlids because of their similarity in colour. Size‐matched pairs of prey fish (gold and dark) were offered to the predator and the time until the fish were attacked was recorded. The gold morph was attacked first more often (approximately 70%) but not faster than the dark morph. This suggests that the predator perceives the gold individual first, and/or that the predator exhibits a preference or higher motivation to attack the gold prey fish. The increased risk of predation of gold prey fish suggests for the Midas cichlid system that being gold may carry significant costs in terms of natural selection as a result of its major piscivorous predator. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 111 , 350–358.  相似文献
4.
Predation can play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of prey colour polymorphisms. Several factors are known to affect predator choice, including the prey's relative abundance and conspicuousness. In polymorphic prey species, predators often target the most common or most visible morphs. To test if predator choice can explain why in Midas cichlid fish the more visible (gold) morph is also more rare than the inconspicuous dark morph, we conducted predation experiments using two differently coloured wax models in Nicaraguan crater lakes. Contrary to expectations, we observed an overall higher attack rate on the much more abundant, yet less conspicuous dark models, and propose frequency‐dependent predation as a potential explanation for this result. Interestingly, the attack rate differed between different types of predators. While avian predators were biased towards the abundant and less colourful dark morphs, fish predators did not show a strong bias. However, the relative attack rate of fish predators seemed to vary with the clarity of the water, as attack rates on gold models went up as water clarity decreased. The relative differential predation rates on different morphs might impact the relative abundance of both colour morphs and thus explain the maintenance of the colour polymorphism. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 112 , 123–131.  相似文献
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