首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   954篇
  国内免费   3篇
  完全免费   78篇
  2018年   25篇
  2017年   33篇
  2016年   43篇
  2015年   23篇
  2014年   49篇
  2013年   49篇
  2012年   6篇
  2011年   30篇
  2010年   46篇
  2009年   73篇
  2008年   73篇
  2007年   78篇
  2006年   44篇
  2005年   59篇
  2004年   58篇
  2003年   51篇
  2002年   38篇
  2001年   26篇
  2000年   31篇
  1999年   25篇
  1998年   24篇
  1997年   17篇
  1996年   23篇
  1995年   12篇
  1994年   13篇
  1993年   9篇
  1992年   10篇
  1991年   14篇
  1990年   11篇
  1989年   13篇
  1988年   4篇
  1987年   4篇
  1986年   4篇
  1985年   6篇
  1984年   6篇
  1983年   2篇
  1982年   1篇
  1979年   1篇
  1977年   1篇
排序方式: 共有1035条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
There is concern that the progeny resulting from the spawnings of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon may compete with and disrupt native salmon populations. This study compared, both in the hatchery and in the wild, fitness-related traits and examined interactions among farmed, native and hybrid 0+ parr derived from controlled crosses and reared under common conditions. The farmed salmon were seventh-generation fish from the principal commercial strain in Norway and native salmon were from the rivers Imsa and Lone, Norway. In the hatchery, farmed salmon were more aggressive than both native populations and tended to dominate them in pairwise contests. Farmed salmon were also more prone to risk, leaving cover sooner after a simulated predator attack, and had higher growth rates than native fish. Interbreeding between farmed and native fish generally resulted in intermediate expression of the above traits. There was, however, evidence of hybrid vigour in Lone/farmed crosses which were able to dominate both pure Lone and farmed parr in pairwise contests. In the wild, observations of habitat use and diet suggested that the populations compete for territory and food, and both farmed fish and hybrids expressed higher growth rates than native fish. Our results suggest that these innate differences in behaviour and growth, that probably are linked closely to fitness, will threaten native populations through competition and disruption of local adaptations.  相似文献
2.
3.
An evolutionarily stable strategy for aggressiveness in feeding groups   总被引:9,自引:7,他引:2  
Sirot  Etienne 《Behavioral Ecology》2000,11(4):351-356
Animals searching for food in groups display highly variabledegrees of aggressiveness. In this paper I present an individual-basedgame theoretical model of how gregarious animals should adjusttheir level of aggressiveness to their environmental conditions.In accordance with behavioral observations, the predicted levelof aggressiveness increases progressively with decreasing foodavailability and increasing animal density. The proposed modelalso predicts a positive influence of food energy value andhandling time on the level of aggressiveness within the group.In addition, the model provides information about the influenceof aggressive behavior on individual foraging success, interference,and population dynamics. Adaptive behavioral rules for aggressivenessin consumers are predicted to respond to both competitors and food density in a way that contributes to stabilization of thedynamics of population systems.  相似文献
4.
繁殖期高原鼠兔的攻击行为   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
通过室内配对实验对高原鼠兔(Ochotona curzoniae)繁殖期的攻击行为进行了研究。结果表明,雌雄动物的攻击水平相同,同性个体间的攻击性明显高于异性个体间。雌雄动物具有不同的攻击模式。雌性个体遇到陌生个体首先以攻击中的进攻和追逐为主,然后通过相互接触确定个体的性别,若为同性个体,以防御为主,若为异性个体,则有防御和亲昵两种选择;雄性动物遇到陌生个体同样首先以攻击为主,相互接触后,若为异性  相似文献
5.
In humans and other primates low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the major serotonin (5-HT) metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) have been correlated to high aggressiveness. This finding forms the basis of the 5-HT deficiency hypothesis of aggression. Surprisingly, this correlation has not been confirmed in rodents so far, while manipulation studies aimed to investigate the link between 5-HT and aggressive behaviour are mostly carried out in rodents. In this study the relation between aggression and CSF monoamine and metabolite concentrations was investigated in male Wildtype Groningen rats. In sharp contrast to the hypothesis and our expectation, a clear positive correlation was found between the individual level of trait-like aggressiveness and CSF concentrations of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Shortly after the acute display of aggressive behaviour (as a state-like phenomenon), decreased 5-HT levels and an increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio and NE concentrations were found. Surprisingly, pharmacological challenges known to influence 5-HT transmission and aggressive behaviour did not affect CSF 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations, only the NE level was increased. Lesioning 5-HT terminals by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) administration caused a decrease in CSF 5-HT and 5-HIAA, but without affecting aggressive behaviour. The observed positive correlation between CSF 5-HIAA and trait aggressiveness makes it questionable whether a direct extrapolation of neurobiological mechanisms of aggression between species is justified. Interpretation of CSF metabolite levels in terms of activity of neural substrates requires a far more detailed knowledge of the dynamics and kinetics of a neurotransmitter after its release.  相似文献
6.
This study provides evidence in the pig that stress experienced during gestation has long-lasting effects on offspring daughters, including their maternal behaviour. Thirty-six primiparous sows were divided into control and two groups that were stressed (by social mixing) during either the second (Mix 2) or third (Mix 3) trimester of pregnancy. We found detrimental effects of mixing on the mothers' growth, body lesions, and cortisol secretion, but did not observe any significant effects on reproductive parameters including birth weight. At 60 days of age, 48 daughters were randomly selected from the three treatments: half were challenged using a restraint and isolation test. Then, all were culled and brain tissue was collected. In situ hybridisation measurements showed increased expression of CRH mRNA in the PVN in unrestrained Mix 2 and in the amygdala of Mix 2 and Mix 3 daughters. At 67 days, 24 further daughters were mixed to measure their responses to this social stress. All showed increased salivary cortisol secretion, but Mix 2 and Mix 3 daughters showed a greater and longer response than controls. Finally, all 24 were inseminated and at parturition maternal behaviour was measured. Mix 2 and Mix 3 daughters were more restless and more responsive to piglets that approached the head of the sow, traits which previously have been shown to be a component of abnormal maternal behaviour. Indeed, Mix 2 and Mix 3 daughters also tended to bite at their piglets more than control daughters.  相似文献
7.
In aquaculture, competitive interactions for food are a major source of growth rate variation, since they result in aggressive individuals acquiring a disproportionate amount of food and growing faster. Consequently, such competition increases the variance and skew of the size distribution of fish. In Atlantic salmon Salmo salar acquaculture, rearing is often initiated with juveniles of uniform size. However, the initial factors allowing fish to out-compete others of the same size is unclear. This study shows that individual differences in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may contribute to differences in aggression between juvenile Atlantic salmon. Fish were segregated into three holding tanks on the basis of differences in relative SMR aggression was highest in the tank containing high SMR fish, and lowest in a low SMR group. However, there were no significant differences in mean growth between the three treatments, although the skew of the size distribution was much less in the low SMR group than in the high SMR group. Therefore, although mean growth was not improved in the low SMR group by excluding high SMR fish, their growth subsequently showed less variability, possibly as a consequence of fewer despotic individuals gaining disproportionate access to food.  相似文献
8.
Peptic ulcer is a common disorder of gastrointestinal system and its pathogenesis is multifactorial, where smoking and nicotine have significant adverse effects. Smoking and chronic nicotine treatment stimulate basal acid output which is more pronounced in the smokers having duodenal ulcer. This increased gastric acid secretion is mediated through the stimulation of H2-receptor by histamine released after mast cell degranulation and due to the increase of the functional parietal cell volume or secretory capacity in smokers. Smoking and nicotine stimulate pepsinogen secretion also by increasing chief cell number or with an enhancement of their secretory capacity. Long-term nicotine treatment in rats also significantly decreases total mucus neck cell population and neck-cell mucus volume. Smoking also increases bile salt reflux rate and gastric bile salt concentration thereby increasing duodenogastric reflux that raises the risk of gastric ulcer in smokers. Smoking and nicotine not only induce ulceration, but they also potentiate ulceration caused by H. pylori, alcohol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or cold restrain stress. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play an important role in ulcerogenesis through oxidative damage of the mucosa by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), which is potentiated by nicotine and smoking. Nicotine by a cAMP-protein kinase A signaling system elevates the endogenous vasopressin level, which plays an aggressive role in the development of gastroduodenal lesions. Smoking increases production of platelet activating factor (PAF) and endothelin, which are potent gastric ulcerogens. Cigarette smoking and nicotine reduce the level of circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and decrease the secretion of EGF from the salivary gland, which are necessary for gastric mucosal cell renewal. Nicotine also decreases prostaglandin generation in the gastric mucosa of smokers, thereby making the mucosa susceptible to ulceration. ROI generation and ROI-mediated gastric mucosal cell apoptosis are also considered to be important mechanism for aggravation of ulcer by cigarette smoke or nicotine. Both smoking and nicotine reduce angiogenesis in the gastric mucosa through inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis thereby arresting cell renewal process. Smoking or smoke extract impairs both spontaneous and drug-induced healing of ulcer. Smoke extract also inhibits gastric mucosal cell proliferation by reducing ornithine decarboxylase activity, which synthesises growth-promoting polyamines. It is concluded that gastric mucosal integrity is maintained by an interplay of some aggressive and defensive factors controlling apoptotic cell death and cell proliferation and smoking potentiates ulcer by disturbing this balance.  相似文献
9.
Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is central to animal psychology, behavioural genetics, pharmacology, and animal husbandry, but relatively few studies have examined the ecology and evolution of temperament traits. This situation is surprising, given that temperament is likely to exert an important influence on many aspects of animal ecology and evolution, and that individual variation in temperament appears to be pervasive amongst animal species. Possible explanations for this neglect of temperament include a perceived irrelevance, an insufficient understanding of the link between temperament traits and fitness, and a lack of coherence in terminology with similar traits often given different names, or different traits given the same name. We propose that temperament can and should be studied within an evolutionary ecology framework and provide a terminology that could be used as a working tool for ecological studies of temperament. Our terminology includes five major temperament trait categories: shyness-boldness, exploration-avoidance, activity, sociability and aggressiveness. This terminology does not make inferences regarding underlying dispositions or psychological processes, which may have restrained ecologists and evolutionary biologists from working on these traits. We present extensive literature reviews that demonstrate that temperament traits are heritable, and linked to fitness and to several other traits of importance to ecology and evolution. Furthermore, we describe ecologically relevant measurement methods and point to several ecological and evolutionary topics that would benefit from considering temperament, such as phenotypic plasticity, conservation biology, population sampling, and invasion biology.  相似文献
10.
We present two elaborations of the model of Broom and Ruxtonthat found evolutionarily stable kleptoparasitic strategiesfor foragers. These elaborations relax the assumption that thedistribution of times required to handle discovered food itemsis exponential. These changes increase the complexity of themodel but represent a significant improvement in biologicalrealism. In one elaboration, handling takes a fixed interval,th, at the end of which the whole value of the food item isobtained. We liken this to peeling then consuming a small orange.The other elaboration also assumes that handling takes a fixedinterval, th, but this time the reward from the food item isextracted continuously throughout the handling period. We likenthis to eating an apple. Both models predict that increasingfood density, the ease with which food items can be discovered,or the length of aggressive contests all act to make kleptoparasitismless common. The difference between the evolutionarily stablestrategy solutions of the apple and orange models provides aclear prediction of our theory. When prey items require handlingbefore yielding a lump sum at the end, then kleptoparasiticattacks will be focused on prey items near the end of theirhandling period. However, if prey items yield reward continuouslyduring handling, then attacks should be biased toward newlydiscovered food items. Another key difference between the modelpredictions is that kleptoparasitism increases with foragerdensity in the apple model, but decreases in the orange model.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号