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Methods for construction of adenovirus vectors   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
Adenoviruses are attracting increasing attention as general purpose mammalian cell expression vectors, as recombinant vaccines, and potentially as vectors for gene therapy. Not only is the adenovirus genome relatively easy to manipulate by recombinant DNA techniques, but adenovirus vectors are relatively stable, grow to high titers, and can transduce a variety of cell types in cell culture and in vivo. Vectors can be designed that are either replication competent or replication defective and, in the latter case, are highly efficient at delivering and expressing genes in mammalian cells without resulting in cell killing. Methods are described for growing, titrating, and purifying adenoviruses, for extracting viral DNA from purified virions and from infected cells, for rescuing inserts of foreign DNA into the viral genome, and for assessing expression of inserted genes in adenovirus vectors.  相似文献
The SARS-CoV S glycoprotein: expression and functional characterization   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
We have cloned, expressed, and characterized the full-length and various soluble fragments of the SARS-CoV (Tor2 isolate) S glycoprotein. Cells expressing S fused with receptor-expressing cells at neutral pH suggesting that the recombinant glycoprotein is functional, its membrane fusogenic activity does not require other viral proteins, and that low pH is not required for triggering membrane fusion; fusion was not observed at low receptor concentrations. S and its soluble ectodomain, S(e), were not cleaved to any significant degree. They ran at about 180-200kDa in SDS gels suggesting post-translational modifications as predicted by previous computer analysis and observed for other coronaviruses. Fragments containing the N-terminal amino acid residues 17-537 and 272-537 but not 17-276 bound specifically to Vero E6 cells and purified soluble receptor, ACE2, recently identified by M. Farzan and co-workers [Nature 426 (2003) 450-454]. Together with data for inhibition of binding by antibodies developed against peptides from S, these findings suggest that the receptor-binding domain is located between amino acid residues 303 and 537. These results also confirm that ACE2 is a functional receptor for the SARS virus and may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms of SARS-CoV entry and in the development of vaccine immunogens and entry inhibitors.  相似文献
Sette A  Sidney J 《Immunogenetics》1999,50(3-4):201-212
 Herein, we review the epitope approach to vaccine development, and discuss how knowledge of HLA supertypes might be used as a tool in the development of such vaccines. After reviewing the main structural features of the A2-, A3-, B7-, and B44- supertype alleles, and biological data demonstrating their immunological relevance, we analyze the frequency at which these supertype alleles are expressed in various ethnicities and discuss the relevance of those observations to vaccine development. Next, the existence of five new supertypes (A1, A24, B27, B58, and B62) is reported. As a result, it is possible to account for the predominance of all known HLA class I with only nine main functional binding specificities. The practical implications of this finding, as well as its relevance to understanding the functional implication of MHC polymorphism in humans, are discussed.  相似文献
利用转基因胡萝卜表达肺结核疫苗   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
利用转基因植物生产研制疫苗,不但可以改变传统的疫苗生产方式和接种手段,而且会大大降低疫苗的生产成本,以胡萝卜(Daucus carota L.var.sativa)无菌幼苗的子叶和下胚轴为外植体,通过携带有35S启动子驱动的结核杆菌(Myobacterium tuberculosis(Zopf)Lehmann et Neumann)分泌蛋白MPY64基因的根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefacins (Smith et TOwnsend)(Conn)LBA4404的介导进行转化,在筛选培养基上诱导形成抗性愈伤组织,经胚状体发生途径分化得到抗性苗,植株移栽后生长情况政党。经PCR和Southern等方法鉴定,确认结核杆菌分泌蛋白MPT64基因已整合到胡萝卜的染色体中。Western检测结果表明,在转基因胡萝卜的蛋白质中含有MPT64分泌蛋白,为进一步研究利用转基因植物研制研制疫苗和防治结核的新型疫苗提供了材料。  相似文献
Immunotherapy of cancer with dendritic-cell-based vaccines   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
 Animal studies have shown that vaccination with genetically modified tumor cells or with dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with tumor antigens are potent strategies to elicit protective immunity in tumor-bearing animals, more potent than “conventional” strategies that have been tested in clinical settings with limited success. While both vaccination strategies are forms of cell therapy requiring complex and costly ex vivo manipulations of the patient’s cells, current protocols using dendritic cells are considerably simpler and would be more widely available. Vaccination with defined tumor antigens presented by DC has obvious appeal. However, in view of the expected emergence of antigen-loss variants as well as natural immunovariation, effective vaccine formulations must contain mixtures of commonly, if not universally, expressed tumor antigens. When, or even if, such common tumor antigens will be identified cannot be, predicted, however. Thus, for the foreseeable future, vaccination with total-tumor-derived material as source of tumor antigens may be preferable to using defined tumor antigens. Vaccination with undefined tumor-derived antigens will be limited, however, by the availability of sufficient tumor tissue for antigen preparation. Because the mRNA content of single cells can be amplified, tumor mRNA, or corresponding cDNA libraries, offer an unlimited source of tumor antigens. DC transfected with tumor RNA were shown to engender potent antitumor immunity in animal studies. Thus, immunotherapy using autologous DC loaded with unfractionated tumor-derived antigens in the form of RNA emerges as a potentially powerful and broadly useful vaccination strategy for cancer patients. Received: 10 October 1997 / Accepted: 12 January 1998  相似文献
为研究中国急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例中脊髓灰质炎(简称脊灰)病毒分离株的分子特征,为中国继续维持"无脊灰野毒状态"提供理论依据,对2002年所有省级疾病预防控制中心送检的脊灰分离株,用PCR-RFLP法及ELISA法进行型内鉴定.用PCR-RFLP法筛查出与疫苗株相比有异常酶切图谱的毒株共24株,其中Ⅰ型毒株1株,Ⅱ型毒株21株,Ⅲ型毒株2株;用ELISA法筛查出与疫苗株相比有不同的抗原抗体反应的毒株共22株,其中Ⅰ型毒株7株,Ⅱ型毒株4株,Ⅲ型毒株11株,在7株Ⅰ型毒株中有3株为非疫苗类似株(NSL),其余为双反应毒株(DRV).随后对这46株毒株进行了全VP1区的基因序列分析.结果表明:2002年脊灰分离株都是疫苗株或疫苗衍生株,没有发现野毒株,中国继续保持着"无脊灰野毒状态";口服减毒活疫苗(OPV)株与其它野毒株在稳定性性质方面是类似的,即通常是不稳定的,在人体肠道内有很强的选择性;在人体肠道内,病毒复制产生的基因变异导致毒力升高,是引起疫苗相关麻痹病例(VAPP)的重要原因,但宿主本身的因素也有很大的作用;在局部地区有疫苗株的循环或脊灰疫苗衍生株(VDPV)的存在;最终消除疫苗株引起的AFP病例可能还需要脊灰灭活疫苗(IPV)的介入.  相似文献
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogens of infancy and early childhood. Here a fruit-based edible subunit vaccine against RSV was developed by expressing the RSV fusion (F) protein gene in transgenic tomato plants. The F-gene was expressed in ripening tomato fruit under the control of the fruit-specific E8 promoter. Oral immunization of mice with ripe transgenic tomato fruits led to the induction of both serum and mucosal RSV-F specific antibodies. The ratio of immunoglobulin subclasses produced in response to immunization suggested that a type 1 T-helper cell immune response was preferentially induced. Serum antibodies showed an increased titer when the immunized mice were exposed to inactivated RSV antigen.  相似文献
鸡白细胞介素 2(IL-2)基因是新近被确定的非哺乳类IL-2基因。将鸡白细胞介素2(IL-2)基因和传染性法氏囊病病毒 (IBDV)多聚蛋白基因 (VP2/VP4/VP3)分别插入真核表达载体pCI的CMV启动子下游 ,制备DNA疫苗 ,免疫 14日龄SPF鸡 ,14d后二免 ,二免后 3d攻击标准强毒株。结果表明共注射鸡IL 2质粒能明显增强DNA疫苗对强毒攻击 ,保护率达 80 % ;能增强DNA疫苗诱导的中和抗体效价 (P<0.05 ) ;能显著促进鸡胸腺、脾脏和外周血液T淋巴细胞及法氏囊B淋巴细胞增殖反应(P<0.05)。这些结果提示鸡IL 2能明显增强IBDV多聚蛋白DNA疫苗的免疫原性 ,是一种优良的禽类DNA疫苗佐剂。  相似文献
Stability properties of pulse vaccination strategy in SEIR epidemic model   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
The problem of the applicability of the pulse vaccination strategy (PVS) for the stable eradication of some relevant general class of infectious diseases is analyzed in terms of study of local asymptotic stability (LAS) and global asymptotic stability (GAS) of the periodic eradication solution for the SEIR epidemic model in which is included the PVS. Demographic variations due or not to diseased-related fatalities are also considered. Due to the non-triviality of the Floquet's matrix associate to the studied model, the LAS is studied numerically and in this way it is found a simple approximate (but analytical) sufficient criterion which is an extension of the LAS constraint for the stability of the trivial equilibrium in SEIR model without vaccination. The numerical simulations also seem to suggest that the PVS is slightly more efficient than the continuous vaccination strategy. Analytically, the GAS of the eradication solutions is studied and it is demonstrated that the above criteria for the LAS guarantee also the GAS.  相似文献
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large family of proteins with different molecular weights and different intracellular localizations. These proteins undertake crucial functions in maintaining cell homeostasis, and therefore they have been conserved during evolution. Hsp70 and Grp94/gp96, due to their peptide chaperone capacity and their ability to actively interact with professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), are also endowed with crucial immunological functions. The immunological properties of these proteins and their implications for vaccine in human cancer will be discussed. Immunological and clinical data of phase I/II studies in melanoma and colorectal cancer patients will be reviewed.This work was presented at the first Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Summer School, 8–13 September 2003, Ionian Village, Bartholomeio, Peloponnese, Greece.  相似文献
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