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1.
圈养马麝夏秋冬活动格局的比较   总被引:21,自引:1,他引:20  
2000年6月至2001年1月间,在甘肃兴隆山保护区麝场对46只圈养马麝进行扫描取样观察,记录其站立及运动、摄食、反刍和静卧4种行为,并对各行为的发生率进行了统计分析。结果表明:圈养马麝的活动有昼夜节律和季节变化,夏季活动型属于晨昏型偏夜型,秋季偏向昼夜型,冬季也属昼夜型但趋于白昼活动;除季节间分布不一的晨昏活动高峰期外,3个季节均有相对恒定的午夜(22:00-01:30)活动高峰;气温是影响圈养马麝活动格局的主要因子。  相似文献
2.
蜜蜂和熊蜂都是理想的授粉昆虫,但熊蜂比蜜蜂更适合为温室果菜授粉,主要由于熊蜂和蜜蜂授粉时的活动方式不同。作者对明亮熊蜂和意大利蜜蜂为日光温室草莓授粉时的行为和活动方式进行了比较研究。结果表明,明亮熊蜂和意大利蜜蜂的授粉行为相似,但活动方式不同。明亮熊蜂开始访花的时间(8:00~8:05)比意大利蜜蜂(9:25~9:40)早,停止访花的时间(15:55~16:05)却比意大利蜜蜂(15:20~15:30)晚;开始访花的温度(12~13℃)也比意大利蜜蜂(>15℃)低,意大利蜜蜂在早晨和阴天不访花。明亮熊蜂个体的日活动时间271.43±4.48 s,明显比意大利蜜蜂个体的日活动时间180.00±2.64 s长,差异显著;而采集时间为105.71±1.16 s,显著长于意大利蜜蜂的76.43±3.83 s。明亮熊蜂每分钟平均访花数为8.44±0.44,极显著高于意大利蜜蜂每分钟的平均访花数2.38±0.15;明亮熊蜂访花间隔为3.81±0.42 s,极显著短于意大利蜜蜂的6.0±0.48 s。明亮熊蜂访花具有选择性,每天访早期花平均为55%,意大利蜜蜂则无选择性,每天访早期花平均为34%,二者差异显著;在9:00~12:00明亮熊蜂访早期花平均为75%,意大利蜜蜂访早期花则仅为31%。熊蜂在花间和花簇间活动频繁,平均移动距离为5.2 m;而意大利蜜蜂很少在花簇间移动,平均移动距离只有1.1 m。据此得出明亮熊蜂为日光温室草莓授粉的活动特性优越于意大利蜜蜂,从而产生更高的授粉效益。  相似文献
3.
Plasticity of diel and circadian activity rhythms in fishes   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
In many fish species, some individuals arediurnal while others are nocturnal. Sometimes,the same individual can be diurnal at first andthen switch to nocturnalism, or vice-versa.This review examines the factors that areassociated with such plasticity. It covers thebreakdown of activity rhythms during migration,spawning, and the parental phase; reversals ofactivity patterns during ontogeny or from oneseason to the next; effects of light intensity,temperature, predation risk, shoal size, foodavailability, and intraspecific competition.Case studies featuring goldfish (Carassiusauratus), golden shiner (Notemigonuscrysoleucas), lake chub (Couesiusplumbeus), salmonids, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and parentalsticklebacks and cichlids illustrate some ofthese influences. It is argued that mostspecies have a circadian system but that havingsuch a system does not necessarily imply strictdiurnalism or nocturnalism. Rigidity ofactivity phase seems more common in species,mostly marine, that display behavioral sleep,and for these animals the circadian clock canhelp maintain the integrity of the sleepperiod and ensure that its occurrence takes place atthat time of day to which the animal's sensoryequipment is not as well adapted. However, inother fishes, mostly from freshwater habitats,the circadian clock seems to be used mainly foranticipation of daily events such as thearrival of day, night, or food, and possiblyfor other abilities such as time-place learningand sun compass orientation, rather than forstrict control of activity phase. In thesespecies, various considerations relating toforaging success and predation risk maydetermine whether the animal is diurnal ornocturnal at any particular time and place.  相似文献
4.
大兴安岭地区紫貂的活动节律   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
马建章  徐利 《兽类学报》1999,19(2):95-100
借助无线电遥测技术,对4只紫貂全年的活动节律进行了研究,结果表明,紫貂的活动节律春季和冬季的高峰是在晨昏二个阶段,夏秋二季的活动高峰在白昼。春季总体活动节律与夏季相比有明显差异(F=4.499,df=1,22,23;P=0.045),春季与秋季的活动节律也有差异(F=7.039;df=1,22,23;P=0.015)。其总体平均活动强度,春季活动量最小(17.53%),夏季最高(38.29%),其  相似文献
5.
圈养马麝发情交配后期的日活动格局   总被引:8,自引:3,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
2001年1月,对46只圈养马麝进行了行为取样,记录了四种行为状态,站立及运动,摄食,反刍,静卧。区分性别和年龄组,比较各组在发情后期的活动格局。在发情末期,马麝呈现多高峰的日活动节律,清晨的活动高峰不明显,故而包含于持续时间极长(07:00-14:30时)的上午活动高峰,另具黄昏(16:30-18:00)时和午夜(21:00-00:30时)活动高峰。发情后期,马麝的活动节律主要受圈养条件,气温和生理状态的影响,摄食高峰的初次出现与喂饲时间有关,在喂锔前后发生反刍高峰,这是对饲料限量投放的一种适应;为适应冬季夜间的低气温,马麝在夜间趋向于静卧,而在较暖的昼间活动,以减少热量消耗,马麝雌体的发情交配状态影响其活动性,已交配受孕的雌体活动性降低。雄体的活动格局也受年龄和近期交配经历的影响。  相似文献
6.
Ecology of hoolock gibbon of Bangladesh   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
Of the nine known species of gibbon,Hylobates hoolock is found in the evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of Bangladesh. It is monogamous, living in groups of 2–5, each group maintaining its territory, in a home range of 30–35 ha. The day range varies from 600m to 1600m. Detailed study on this gibbon has not been conducted. Therefore, a study on the ecology and behaviour of this species was made between February 1990 and January 1991. The gibbon spends 39% of the daytime in feeding, 25% in moving, 26% in resting, 4% in calling, and 6% in other social activities. They are completely arboreal and are mainly frugivorous. The total number of this species is unlikely to exceed 200. They are in danger due to their habitat destruction.  相似文献
7.
We describe the activity patterns and time budgets of white-headed langurs that were confined to about 4 km2 of Longlin habitat in Fusui County, Guangxi Province, China. Between February and December 1996, we observed 6 langur groups monthly via group focal sampling and continuously recording the behavior of a focal group. Our results indicate that the langur groups selected stone caves on cliffs as sleeping sites. The daily activity pattern outside caves had 8 stages: (1) leaving the cave in the early morning; (2) moving and resting; (3) morning feeding; (4) moving a long distance; (5) resting at noon; (6) afternoon feeding; (7) moving back to the cave, and (8) entering the cave. Over the year, langurs spent a daily average of about 11.5 h outside caves and about 12.5 h inside caves. Moving accounted for 7% (spring), 7% (summer-autumn) and 13% (winter) of the time budget, and langurs spent 9% (summer-autumn) and 14% (spring) to 20% (winter) of their time feeding. Resting accounted for 79% of the time budget in spring, 84% in summer-autumn, and 57% in winter. Sunbathing only occurred in winter and accounted for about 10% of the time budget. One-way ANOVA and multiple range tests demonstrated that time budgets differed significantly among seasons. Langurs spent significantly more time feeding and moving in winter than in spring and summer-autumn, but significantly less time resting in winter than in spring and summer-autumn.  相似文献
8.
四川唐家河自然保护区扭角羚冬春季日活动模式研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
根据相机陷阱调查获得照片的时间,研究了2008年12月~2009年5月唐家河自然保护区内野生扭角羚Budorcastaxicolor的日活动模式。通过对24个1km×1km样方的调查,共完成686个相机工作日的取样量,获得有效的扭角羚捕捉次数709次(冬季322次,春季387次),并分别计算出扭角羚冬季和春季在各时间段的相对活动强度指数RAI。结果显示,扭角羚在冬季和春季的日活动模式没有显著差异(χ2检验,P>0.1),每天都有3个活跃时期(凌晨、早上和下午)和3个紧随的不活跃时期。其中,冬季日活动的最高峰出现在下午17:00~18:00(RAI=12.42),最低谷出现在日出前3:00~6:00(RAI=0.00);春季最高峰出现在早上6:00~7:00(RAI=20.16),最低谷出现在日出前2:00~5:00(RAI=0.26)。在春季,扭角羚在上午活跃期的活动强度明显高于下午活跃期,而在冬季则相反。春季与冬季相比,扭角羚上午和下午的两个活跃时间段都有提前,可能是由于不同季节气温和光照差异的影响。研究表明,相机陷阱调查技术是研究野生动物在野外活动模式和活动节律的有效工具,可为今后深入开展扭角羚行为生态学...  相似文献
9.
Root competition in polyculture systems involving combinations of four tree species and four grass species was evaluated based on 32P recovery by each species in mixed and sole crop situations. The tree species were: Leucaena leucocephala, Casuarina equisetifolia, Acacia auriculiformis and Ailanthus triphysa, and the grass species were: Pennisetum purpureum (hybrid napier), Brachiaria ruziziensis (congo signal), Panicum maximum (guinea grass) and Zea mexicana (teosinte). Four lateral distance (25 and 50 cm) and depth (15 and 50 cm) treatments were included in the study to characterize the relative fine root distribution of trees. Absorption of 32P was monitored through radioassay of leaves. Regardless of the species, 32P uptake from 50 cm soil depth was lower than that of 15 cm depth. Absorption of 32P from 50 cm lateral distance was also less than that of 25 cm distance in Acacia and Casuarina. Grass species in sole crop situations absorbed more 32P than in mixed systems. None of the grass species when grown in association with tree components affected the absorption of 32P by trees. All grass species exerted a complementary effect on 32P absorption by Casuarina. Leucaena also benefited in the same way when grown in association with congo signal and/or teosinte. Of the tree species, Acacia and Leucaena adversely affected the 32P uptake by grass species.  相似文献
10.
啮齿动物活动模式的几种数值指标   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
提出评估啮齿动物活动模式的4种定量指标:θ、λ、Φ和η。θ主要衡量动物日活动强度的差异程度;λ用于判断动物活动究竟是以昼行性为主还是以夜行性为主;Φ用来甄别动物的活动究竟接近于(或属于)单峰型还是接近于(或属于)双峰型;而η则是度量动物绝对活动强度的指标。这4种数值指标分别从不同角度阐明动物活动模式的特征,可为分析比较动物的活动模式提供参考依据。  相似文献
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