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1.
2.
Common amino acid sequence domains among the LEA proteins of higher plants   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
LEA proteins are late embryogenesis abundant in the seeds of many higher plants and are probably universal in occurrence in plant seeds. LEA mRNAs and proteins can be induced to appear at other stages in the plant's life by desiccation stress and/or treatment with the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). A role in protecting plant structures during water loss is likely for these proteins, with ABA functioning in the stress transduction process. Presented here are conserved tracts of amino acid sequence among LEA proteins from several species that may represent domains functionally important in desiccation protection. Curiously, an 11 amino acid sequence motif is found tandemly repeated in a group of LEA proteins of vastly different sizes. Analysis of this motif suggests that it exists as an amphiphilic helix which may serve as the basis for higher order structure.  相似文献
3.
Cloning and characterization of a cold-and ABA-inducible Arabidopsis gene   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
We have identified by differential screening a novel Arabidopsis thaliana gene, called kin1, which is induced at +44 °C. The nucleotide sequences of both the genomic clone and the corresponding cDNA were determined. The deduced 6.5 kDa polypeptide has an unusual amino acid composition being rich in alanine, glycine and lysine. The gene belongs to a family of at least two genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that the level of kin1 mRNA is increased 20-fold in cold-treated plants. In addition to being expressed in cold, kin1 mRNAlso induced by water stress and the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) which has been suggested to be a common mediator for osmotic stress responses and cold acclimation in plants. Sequence comparisons showed that the kin1 gene product has similarities to fish antifreeze proteins (AFPs).  相似文献
4.
Mature leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red kidney bean), Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) were used to study accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) during water stress. The water status of individual, detached leaves was monitored while the leaves slowly wilted, and samples were cut from the leaves as they lost water. The leaf sections were incubated at their respecitive water contents to allow ABA to build up or not. At least 8 h were required for a new steady-state level of ABA to be established. The samples from any one leaf covered a range of known water potentials (), osmotic pressures (), and turgor pressures (p). The and p values were calculated from pressure-volume curves, using a pressure bomb to measure the water potentials. Decreasing water potential had little effect on ABA levels in leaves at high turgor. Sensitivity of the production of ABA to changes in progressively increased as turgor approached zero. At p=1 bar, ABA content averaged 4 times the level found in fully turgid samples. Below p=1 bar, ABA content increased sharply to as much as 40 times the level found in unstressed samples. ABA levels rose steeply at different water potentials for different leaves, according to the at which turgor became zero. These differences were caused by the different osmotic pressures of the leaves that were used; must cqual - for turgor to be zero. Leaves vary in , not only among species, but also between plants of one and the same species depending on the growing conditions. A difference of 6 bars (calculated at =0) was found between the osmotic pressures of leaves from two groups of G. hirsutum plants; one group had previously experienced periodic water stress, and the other group had never been stressed. When individual leaves were subsequently wilted, the leaves from stress-conditioned plants required a lower water potential in order to accumulate ABA than did leaves from previously unstressed plants. On the basis of these results we suggest that turgor is the critical parameter of plant water relations which controls ABA production in water-stressed leaves.Abbreviations ABA abscisic acid - me-ABA abscisic-acid methyl ester - leaf water potential - osmotic pressure - p volumeaveraged turgor - volumetric modulus of elasticity  相似文献
5.
The barley aleurone layer is a terminally differentiated secretory tissue whose activity is hormonally controlled. The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) stimulates the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes and triggers the onset of programmed cell death (PCD). Abscisic acid (ABA) antagonizes the effects of GA and inhibits enzyme secretion and PCD. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in many types of PCD, and data presented here implicate ROS in hormonally regulated death of barley aleurone cells. Incubation of aleurone layers or protoplasts in H(2)O(2)-containing media results in death of GA-treated but not ABA-treated aleurone cells. Cells that are programmed to die are therefore less able to withstand ROS than cells that are programmed to remain alive. Illumination of barley aleurone protoplasts with blue or UV-A light results in a rapid increase in intracellular H(2)O(2) production. GA-treated protoplasts die rapidly in response to this increase in intracellular H(2)O(2) production, but ABA-treated protoplasts do not die. The rate of light-induced death could be slowed by antioxidants, and incubating protoplasts in the dark with the antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene reduces the rate of hormonally induced death. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GA-treated aleurone protoplasts are less able than ABA-treated protoplasts to tolerate internally generated or exogenously applied H(2)O(2), and strongly suggest that ROS are components of the hormonally regulated cell death pathway in barley aleurone cells.  相似文献
6.
During germination of barley grains, DNA fragmentation was observed in the aleurone. The appearance of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone layer, observed by TUNEL staining in aleurone sections, started near the embryo and extended to the aleurone cells far from the embryo in a time dependent manner. The same spatial temporal activities of hydrolytic enzymes such as -amylase were observed in aleurone. DNA fragmentation could also be seen in vitro under osmotic stress, in isolated aleurone. During aleurone protoplast isolation, a very enhanced and strong DNA fragmentation occurred which was not seen in protoplast preparations of tobacco leaves. ABA was found to inhibit DNA fragmentation occurring in barley aleurone under osmotic stress condition and during protoplast isolation, while the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid counteracted the effect of ABA. Addition of auxin or cytokinin had no significant effect on DNA fragmentation in these cells. To study the role of phosphorylation in ABA signal transduction leading to control of DNA fragmentation (apoptosis), the effects of the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and of phenylarisine oxide on apoptosis were studied. We hypothesize that the regulation of DNA fragmentation in aleurone plays a very important role in spatial and temporal control of aleurone activities during germination. The possible signal transduction pathway of ABA leading to the regulation of DNA fragmentation is discussed.  相似文献
7.
Programmed cell death during endosperm development   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
The endosperm of cereals functions as a storage tissue in which the majority of starch and seed storage proteins are synthesized. During its development, cereal endosperm initiates a cell death program that eventually affects the entire tissue with the exception of the outermost cells, which differentiate into the aleurone layer and remain living in the mature seed. To date, the cell death program has been described for maize and wheat endosperm, which exhibits common and unique elements for each species. The progression of endosperm programmed cell death (PCD) in both species is accompanied by an increase in nuclease activity and the internucleosomal degradation of nuclear DNA, hallmarks of apoptosis in animals. Moreover, ethylene and abscisic acid are key to mediating PCD in cereal endosperm. The progression of the cell death program in developing maize endosperm follows a highly organized pattern whereas in wheat endosperm, PCD initiates stochastically. Although the essential characteristics of cereal endosperm PCD are now known, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its execution remain to be identified.  相似文献
8.
Sequence and characterization of 6 Lea proteins and their genes from cotton   总被引:31,自引:0,他引:31  
Lea genes code for mRNAs and proteins that are late embryogenesis abundant in higher plant seed embryos. They appear to be ubiquitous in higher plants and may be induced to high levels of expression in other tissues and at other times of ontogeny by ABA and/or desiccation. Presented here are the genomic and cDNA sequences for 6 of these genes from cotton seed embryos and the derived amino acid sequences of the corresponding proteins.The Lea genes contain the standard sequence features of eucaryotic genes (TATA box and poly (A) addition sequences) and have 1 or more introns. Sequences differences between cDNA and genomic DNA confirm the existence of small multigene families for several Lea genes. The amino acid composition and sequence for the Lea proteins are unusual. Five are extremely hydrophilic, four contain no cys or trp and 4 have sequence domains that suggest amphiphilic helical structures. Hypothetical functions in desiccation survival, based on amino acid sequence, are discussed.  相似文献
9.
Shoot and root growth are differentially sensitive to water stress. Interest in the involvement of hormones in regulating these responses has focused on abscisic acid (ABA) because it accumulates in shoot and root tissues under water-limited conditions, and because it usually inhibits growth when applied to well-watered plants. However, the effects of ABA can differ in stressed and non-stressed plants, and it is therefore advantageous to manipulate endogenous ABA levels under water-stressed conditions. Studies utilizing ABA-deficient mutants and inhibitors of ABA synthesis to decrease endogenous ABA levels, and experimental strategies to circumvent variation in plant water status with ABA deficiency, are changing the view of the role of ABA from the traditional idea that the hormone is generally involved in growth inhibition. In particular, studies of several species indicate that an important role of endogenous ABA is to limit ethylene production, and that as a result of this interaction ABA may often function to maintain rather than inhibit shoot and root growth. Despite early speculation that interaction between these hormones may influence many of the effects of water deficit, this topic has received little attention until recently.  相似文献
10.
Hose E  Steudle E  Hartung W 《Planta》2000,211(6):874-882
Using root- and cell-pressure probes, the effects of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) on the water-transport properties of maize roots (Zea mays L.) were examined in order to work out dose and time responses for root hydraulic conductivity. Abscisic acid applied at concentrations of 100–1,000 nM increased the hydraulic conductivity of excised maize roots both at the organ (root Lpr: factor of 3–4) and the root cell level (cell Lp: factor of 7–27). Effects on the root cortical cells were more pronounced than at the organ level. From the results it was concluded that ABA acts at the plasmalemma, presumably by an interaction with water channels. Abscisic acid therefore facilitated the cell-to-cell component of transport of water across the root cylinder. Effects on cell Lp were transient and highly specific for the undissociated (+)-cis-trans-ABA. The stress hormone ABA facilitates water uptake into roots as soils start drying, especially under non-transpiring conditions, when the apoplastic path of water transport is largely excluded. Received: 26 February 2000 / Accepted: 17 August 2000  相似文献
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