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1.
Muslin AJ  Xing H 《Cellular signalling》2000,12(11-12):703-709
14-3-3 family of proteins plays a key regulatory role in signal transduction, checkpoint control, apoptotic, and nutrient-sensing pathways. 14-3-3 proteins act by binding to partner proteins, and this binding often leads to the altered subcellular localization of the partner. 14-3-3 proteins promote the cytoplasmic localization of many binding partners, including the pro-apoptotic protein BAD and the cell cycle regulatory phosphatase Cdc25C, but they can also promote the nuclear localization of other partners, such as the catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT). In some cases, 14-3-3 binding has no effect on the subcellular localization of a partner. 14-3-3 may affect the localization of a protein by interfering with the function of a nearby targeting sequence, such as a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a nuclear export sequence (NES), on the binding partner.  相似文献
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Abstract: The 14-3-3 protein family, which is present at particularly high concentrations in mammalian brain, is known to be involved in various cellular functions, including protein kinase C regulation and exocytosis. Despite the fact that most of the 14-3-3 proteins are cytosolic, a small but significant proportion of 14-3-3 in brain is tightly and selectively associated with some membranes. Using a panel of isoform-specific antisera we find that the ε, η, γ, β, and ζ isoforms are all present in purified synaptic membranes but absent from mitochondrial and myelin membranes. In addition, the η, ε, and γ isoforms but not the β and ζ isoforms are associated with isolated synaptic junctions. When different populations of synaptosomes were fractionated by a nonequilibrium Percoll gradient procedure, the ε and γ isoforms were present and the β and ζ isoforms were absent from the membranes of synaptosomes sedimenting in the more dense parts of the gradient. The finding that these proteins are associated with different populations of synaptic membranes suggests that they are selectively expressed in different classes of neurones and raises the possibility that some or all of them may influence neurotransmission by regulating exocytosis and/or phosphorylation.  相似文献
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Binding of 14-3-3 proteins to nitrate reductase phosphorylated on Ser543 (phospho-NR) inhibits activity and is responsible for the inactivation of nitrate reduction that occurs in darkened leaves. The 14-3-3-dependent inactivation of phospho-NR is known to require millimolar concentrations of a divalent cation such as Mg2+ at pH 7.5. We now report that micromolar concentrations of the polyamines, spermidine(4+) and spermine(3+), can substitute for divalent cations in modulating 14-3-3 action. Effectiveness of the polyamines decreased with a decrease of polycation charge: spermine(4+) > spermidine(3+) > cadavarine(2+) approximately putrescine(2+) approximately agmatine(2+) approximately N1-acetylspermidine(2+), indicating that two primary and at least one secondary amine group were required. C-terminal truncations of GF14 omega, which encodes the Arabidopsis 14-3-3 isoform omega, indicated that loop 8 (residues 208-219) is the likely cation-binding site. Directed mutagenesis of loop 8, which contains the EF hand-like region identified in earlier studies, was performed to test the role of specific amino acid residues in cation binding. The E208A mutant resulted in a largely divalent cation-independent inhibition of phospho-NR activity, whereas the D219A mutant was fully Mg(2+)-dependent but had decreased affinity for the cation. Mutations and C-terminal truncations that affected the Mg(2+) dependence of phospho-NR inactivation had similar effects on polyamine dependence. The results implicate loop 8 as the site of divalent cation and polyamine binding, and suggest that activation of 14-3-3s occurs, at least in part, by neutralization of negative charges associated with acidic residues in the loop. We propose that binding of polyamines to 14-3-3s could be involved in their regulation of plant growth and development.  相似文献
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Abstract: An antiserum to human 14-3-3 protein has been produced in rabbits. The protein was a poor antigen and attempts to improve immunogenicity were unsuccessful. A radioimmunoassay was developed using the antiserum, 125I- 14-3-3-2, and unlabelled 14-3-3-2 as standards. The assay had a sensitivity limit of 2.5 ng.m1−1. The minor component of human 14-3-3 protein (14-3-3-1 protein) cross-reacted to approximately 10% in the assay. Human tissues were surveyed for 14-3-3 protein by two-dimensional electrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed a 14-3-3 protein complex in brain, intestine, and testis, but not in other tissues. Radioimmunoassay showed that although brain had the highest concentration of 14-3-3 (13.3 μg. mg−1 soluble protein), immunoreactivity was present in all tissues, with the concentration in intestine and testis approaching 50% of the brain level. Lower levels (less than 1.0 μg. mg−1 soluble protein) were seen in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and erythrocytes. The immunoreactivity present in tissues other than brain showed the same molecular weight and charge characteristics as authentic 14-3-3 protein. The radioimmunoassay also detected 14-3-3 protein in serum (50 ng.m1−1) and in CSF (5-130 ng.ml−1). The immunoreactivity present in CSF appeared to be intact 14-3-3 protein. CSF 14-3-3 levels were measured in 82 patients with various neurological disorders. Measurements of this protein did not appear sufficiently discriminating to be o f diagnostic value.  相似文献
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水稻14-3-3蛋白家族的生物信息学分析   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
金谷雷  汪旭升  朱军 《遗传学报》2005,32(7):726-732
通过隐马尔柯夫模型(Hidden Markov Model,HMM),对粳稻(Oryza sativa L.ssp.japonica)基因组的蛋白质数据库进行搜索,结果获得8个14—3—3蛋白的同源序列,其中发现4个新基因。通过对所有粳稻的14—3—3蛋白的DNA序列与各种表达序列标签(Expression Sequence Tags,ESTs)进一步比对,为14-3-3蛋白找到了ESTs的证据。结果说明这些基因在水稻不同的处理和不同的部位都有所表达,而且不同成员之间的表达模式存在较大的差异。蛋白质多序列联配分析结果表明,存在可能的功能多态位点。通过基因结构和染色体定位的分析,确认了水稻基因组中存在E样和非E样两类14-3-3蛋白。此外,对目前植物中的14—3—3家族作了初步的进化分析。  相似文献
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硝酸还原酶活性的调节及可能机制的研究进展   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
张涛  陈云  谢虹  梁建生 《广西植物》2004,24(4):367-372
氮素是农业研究的重点 ,硝酸还原酶是氮代谢中的一个关键酶。有关硝酸还原酶的研究一直是植物生理生化研究的重点。该文就近年来有关硝酸还原酶活性调节的可能机制的研究进展作了简要的综述  相似文献
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Abstract: A protein has been purified from human brain that appears to be the human equivalent of bovine 14-3-3 protein. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the protein migrates as a faster major component, termed 14-3-3-2 protein, and a slower minor component, termed 14-3-3-1 protein, which consists of approximately 12% of the total protein. Both 14-3-3-1 and 14-3-3-2 have a native molecular weight of approximately 67,000. 14-3-3-2 appears to have the subunit composition (αβ; 14-3-3-1 has the composition ββ. Peptide mapping with Stuphvlococcus aureus V8 proteinase shows that α and β subunits are unrelated but the β and β' subunits show some common peptides. Immunoperoxidase labelling shows that 14-3-3 is localised in neurones in the human cerebral cortex. 14-3-3 shows no enolase, creatine kinase, triose phosphate isomerase, ATPase, cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase, or purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity. 14-3-3 does not bind calcium and does not appear to be related to calmodulin, calcineurin, tubulin, neurofilament proteins, clathrin-associated proteins, or tropomyosin. The functional significance of this neuronal protein remains obscure.  相似文献
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Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has been reported to require binding of 14-3-3 proteins for optimal activation by phosphorylation. We examined the effects of phosphorylation at Ser19, Ser31 and Ser40 of bovine TH and human TH isoforms on their binding to the 14-3-3 proteins BMH1/BMH2, as well as 14-3-3 zeta and a mixture of sheep brain 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of Ser31 did not result in 14-3-3 binding, however, phosphorylation of TH on Ser40 increased its affinity towards the yeast 14-3-3 isoforms BMH1/BMH2 and sheep brain 14-3-3, but not for 14-3-3 zeta. On phosphorylation of both Ser19 and Ser40, binding to the 14-3-3 zeta isoform also occurred, and the binding affinity to BMH1 and sheep brain 14-3-3 increased. Both phosphoserine-specific antibodies directed against the 10 amino acids surrounding Ser19 or Ser40 of TH, and the phosphorylated peptides themselves, inhibited the association between phosphorylated TH and 14-3-3 proteins. This was also found when heparin was added, or after proteolytic removal of the N-terminal 37 amino acids of Ser40-phosphorylated TH. Binding of BMH1 to phosphorylated TH decreased the rate of dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A, but no significant change in enzymatic activity was observed in the presence of BMH1. These findings further support a role for 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis and demonstrate isoform specificity for both TH and 14-3-3 proteins.  相似文献
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