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Kuo YH  Ikegami F  Lambein F 《Phytochemistry》2003,62(7):1087-1091
The seeds and one to three years old plants of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) were analyzed for their free amino acid contents. The neuro-excitatory beta-ODAP (beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid), suggested to be the cause of the crippling neurolathyrism, was the major component in the seed extract (70% of the total free amino acids detected) and showed the highest concentration (0.43% by wt) compared to that in the different parts of young plants. beta-ODAP concentration was higher in the shoots as compared to roots and declined in older plants. The amount of beta-ODAP in the roots may be considered as an indirect measure of age and quality. Another neuro-active non-protein amino acid, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), increased dramatically after germination and reached highest concentration in different parts of 3 year-old plants. Glutamine and arginine were the two major free proteinogenic amino acids in the ginseng plants and together they constituted over 50% of all the free amino acids detected in the root.  相似文献
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Compared with the better-studied canonical amino acids, the distribution, metabolism and functions of natural non-canonical amino acids remain relatively obscure. Natural non-canonical amino acids have been mainly discovered in plants as secondary metabolites that perform diversified physiological functions. Due to their specific characteristics, a broader range of natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids have recently been applied in the development of functional materials and pharmaceutical products. With the rapid development of advanced methods in biotechnology, non-canonical amino acids can be incorporated into peptides, proteins and enzymes to improve the function and performance relative to their natural counterparts. Therefore, biotechnological application of non-canonical amino acids in artificial bio-macromolecules follows the central goal of synthetic biology to: create novel life forms and functions. However, many of the non-canonical amino acids are synthesized via chemo- or semi-synthetic methods, and few non-canonical amino acids can be synthesized using natural in vivo pathways. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify the metabolic pathways and key enzymes of the non-canonical amino acids. This will lead to the discovery of more candidate non-canonical amino acids, especially for those that are derived from microorganisms and are naturally bio-compatible with chassis strains for in vivo biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize representative natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids, their known information regarding associated metabolic pathways, their characteristics and their practical applications. Moreover, this review summarizes current barriers in developing in vivo pathways for the synthesis of non-canonical amino acids, as well as other considerations, future trends and potential applications of non-canonical amino acids in advanced biotechnology.  相似文献
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