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1.
In the period 2000–2012, 38.3 % of 950 marked overwintered hazel dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius) were not recaptured at a study site in Lithuania in autumn. As adult dormice are sedentary, it is presumed that those dormice not recaptured died between late April and August. The highest total number of dormice captured for the last time was recorded in May and the lowest in August. The total summer mortality was significantly higher in females (42.5 %) than in males (34.6 %), but it did not depend on dormouse age or body weight. Tawny owl (Strix aluco) is the main known dormouse predator in Lithuania, and likely, it has the highest impact on summer mortality of M. avellanarius. Over the years, the total summer mortality of adult dormice ranged from 27 % to 52 %. The increased summer mortality resulted in decreased total dormouse population density and particularly decreased density of adult females in summer. Decreased densities led to more intensive breeding in the dormouse population, specifically breeding by young-of-the-year females, a pattern that is not common for this species. The number of breeding cases by young-of-the-year females was inversely related to the density of adult overwintered females in summer and to the number of breeding cases of these females. Breeding by young-of-the-year females was the main factor in the restoration of decreased population density in summer. Lithuanian populations of M. avellanarius are unique in their high proportion of breeding cases by young-of-the-year females amongst all populations investigated in the entire species distributional range.  相似文献
2.
Owl pellets have high potential as a source of DNA. However, this noninvasive method of collecting DNA is rarely used, and its methodological aspects are poorly understood. We investigated the methodology for DNA extraction and amplification from owl pellets containing the smallest European rodent—the Harvest mouse Micromys minutus—as an example. We used mandibles identified in owl pellets for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA amplification. For DNA extraction, we tested two commercial protocols and utilized a protocol being a combination of two commercial kits which ensured high efficiency of DNA extraction. Additionally, we recorded that the amount of DNA was five times higher in extracts from teeth as compared to DNA extracts from jawbones derived from the same mandible. The quantity of DNA was significantly positively correlated with biological sample weight; however, the age of the pellet remains had an impact on the level of inhibition. We recorded inhibition in 40 % of mtDNA extracts derived from pellets older than 150 months, whereas in DNA extracts from pellets younger than 80 months, we did not observe a negative impact of inhibition on PCR efficiency. The amplification success rate was 89.9 % for the mitochondrial fragment and 39.4 % in the case of the nuclear fragment. We observed partial degradation of DNA evidenced by the fact that the longest fragments that we were able to amplify in the case of mtDNA were 450 and 200 bp for nuDNA. The study shows that pellets can be considered as a source of DNA and have high potential for molecular research in the case of threatened species and species that are difficult to study using standard field techniques.  相似文献
3.
The objective of this study was to identify potential effects of habitat conditions on parasite infection risk in reservoirs. For this, we compared parasite infection in 0+ perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) between reservoir sections: (1) along the longitudinal profile of Brno reservoir (inflow—main body—outflow), and (2) the transversal profile of Hamry reservoir (littoral and pelagic zones). Perch were predominantly infected with trophically transmitted endoparasites. Longitudinal parasite infection differed between sampling sections, showing different trends in particular parasite species between sections. The abundance of dominant Bunodera luciopercae was highest in the main body and lowest in the outflow, abundance of Proteocephalus sp. and Camallanus spp. decreased between the inflow and outflow, and abundance of Acanthocephalus lucii and ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus sp. and Argulus foliaceus) increased from the inflow to the outflow. Parasite diversity was higher in the outflow compared to other sections. No difference was observed in parasite abundance between littoral and pelagic perch subpopulations, though higher endoparasite diversity was found in the littoral zone. The results indicate that habitat type can influence parasite infection in perch through local food (intermediate host) availability. Fish–host behaviour is also discussed as a factor possibly influencing infection in perch.  相似文献
4.
Altitudinal changes in the content of hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 2,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, amentoflavone, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, avicularin, rutin, (+)-catechin and (?)-epicatechin among Hypericum orientale L. and Hypericum pallens Banks and Sol. populations from Northern Turkey were investigated for the first time. Thirty flowering individuals were collected from five different altitudes (400, 950, 1,150, 1,620 and 2,150 m) for H. pallens and six different altitudes (500, 1,150, 1,650, 2,100, 2,720 and 3,250 m) for H. orientale. The plant materials were dried at room temperature and subsequently assayed for chemical contents by HPLC. All chemicals were detected in both species at various levels depending on altitude of growing sites except for caffeic acid which was absent in H. pallens. It was found that plants from higher altitudes produced significantly higher amount of the bioactive compounds tested. The results were discussed as a possible protective response of plants to the different abiotic stress factors as high ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation and low temperature which were prevalent in higher altitudes.  相似文献
5.
Two new species of Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890 (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) are described: Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) homovelans n. sp. from Grey-faced Woodpecker, Picus canus Gmelin, and Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) concavocentralis n. sp. recorded in Hawfinch, Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Linnaeus), both sampled in Bulgaria. The morphology of the gametocytes and their host-cells are described and mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences are generated. Haemoproteus homovelans possesses circumnuclear gametocytes lacking volutin granules. This parasite is particularly similar to Haemoproteus velans Coatney & Roudabush, 1937 also possessing circumnuclear gametocytes that are, however, overfilled with volutin. Haemoproteus concavocentralis can be readily distinguished from all described avian haemoproteids due to the presence of an unfilled concave space between the central part of advanced gametocytes and erythrocyte nucleus. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of 40 haemosporidian cyt b lineages showed close relationships of H. concavocentralis (hHAWF2) with a group of Haemoproteus spp. possessing gametocytes that are pale-stained with Giemsa. The lineage hPICAN02 of H. homovelans clustered with parasites infecting non-passerine birds. Phylogenetic analyses support the current subgeneric classification of the avian haemoproteids and suggest that cyt b lineage hPIPUB01 (GenBank EU254552) has been incorrectly assigned to Haemoproteus picae Coatney & Roudabush, 1937, a common parasite of corvid birds (Passeriformes). This study emphasises the importance of combining molecular techniques and light microscopy in the identification and field studies of avian haemosporidian parasites. Future development of barcodes for molecular identification of haemoproteids will allow better diagnostics of these infections, particularly in veterinary studies addressing insufficiently investigated tissue pathology caused by these parasites.  相似文献
6.
Three species of bucephalid digeneans are known in European freshwater habitats. In this study parthenitae of Rhipidocotyle campanula (Dujardin, 1845) and R. fennica Gibson, Taskinen & Valtonen, 1992, infecting unionid bivalves, and adult Bucephalus polymorphus von Baer, 1827 from perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) were investigated using karyological analysis and DNA sequencing. Our previously published data on genetic characteristics of parthenitae of B. polymorphus from Dreissena polymorpha Pallas were used for comparative analysis. Ribosomal DNA sequences (ITS2 and 28S rDNA) were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the three bucephalid species. Very close phylogenetic affinity between investigated species was revealed; the sequence difference between the two species of Rhipidocotyle Diesing, 1858 (3.78% based on 28S) was comparable with intergeneric differences observed in comparisons of B. polymorphus with R. campanula and R. fennica (3.43% and 4.49% based on 28S, respectively). A high degree of similarity was noted in karyotype structure of the two species of Rhipidocotyle. The diploid chromosome sets consist of 14 bi-armed chromosomes with the first pair of metacentric elements markedly larger than the remaining chromosomes. This chromosome set structure is also specific to B. polymorphus. One specimen of Anodonta anatina L. was infected with tetraploid R. fennica (4n = 28). On the basis of karyotype characters and molecular data, species of the genus Rhipidocotyle cannot be recognised as more closely related to each other than to B. polymorphus. Our findings of Lithuanian and Ukrainian populations of unionid mussels infected with R. fennica provide evidence that this species occurs not only in Finland but also in Central and Eastern Europe. Previous reports of B. polymorphus in unionids in these regions are equivocal because of possible confusion with R. fennica.  相似文献
7.
The presence of several phytochemicals, namely naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, phloroglucinol derivatives hyperforin and adhyperforin, the phenolic acids as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, the flavonols, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, avicularin, rutin, and flavanols (+)-catechin and (?)-epicatechin, as well as biflavonoid amentoflavone was investigated in seven Turkish species of Hypericum from Taeniocarpium and Drosanthe sections. Plants were harvested at flowering, dried at room temperature, dissected into different tissues and assayed for chemical contents by HPLC. All chemicals were detected at various levels depending on species and plant parts. Despite the observed quantitative variation in the chemical content of plant material, it was found that phytochemical profiles of the species from the same section were very similar. The present data could be helpful in selecting the future targets for phytochemical and biological studies as well as enriching our current chemical knowledge about Hypericum species. Such kind of data could also be useful for elucidation of the chemotaxonomical relationships among the sections of Hypericum genus.  相似文献
8.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae K2 toxin is a highly active extracellular protein, important as a biocontrol agent for biotechnological applications in the wine industry. This protein is produced at negligible levels in yeast, making difficult to isolate it in amounts sufficient for investigation and generation of analysis tools. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a bacterial system for expression of the recombinant K2 protein, suitable for generation of antibodies specific for toxin of the yeast origin. Synthesis of the full-length S. cerevisiae K2 preprotoxin in Escherichia coli was found to be toxic to the host cell, resulting in diminished growth. Such effect was abolished by the introduction of the C-terminal truncation into K2 protein, directing it into non-toxic inclusion body fraction. The obtained protein is of limited solubility thus, facilitating the purification by simple and efficient chromatography-free procedure. The protein aggregates were successfully refolded into a soluble form yielding sufficient amounts of a tag-less truncated K2 protein suitable for polyclonal antibody production. Antibodies were raised in rabbit and found to be specific for detection of both antigen and native S. cerevisiae K2 toxin.  相似文献
9.
By means of 845 questionnaires returned in 2009–2010, public attitudes towards the European bison were assessed in Central Lithuania. Free-ranging European bison have existed in this area for 40 years, inhabiting a suboptimal habitat characterized by intensive agriculture and fragmented forests. Despite 85.0 % of respondents reporting positive attitudes towards bison presence, 47.4 % of respondents considered the animals acceptable only if they were not closer than 10 km from their residence. Over 60 % of respondents suggested increasing the numbers of bison in the country, and 51 % suggested letting them live freely in the wild. The most negative attitude towards an increase in numbers was shown by women, respondents with lower knowledge of the species and inhabitants of biggest settlements. Public awareness relating to the European bison is lacking, as nearly 50 % of persons residing near areas inhabited by bison did not know about their presence. We conclude that, despite the high valuation placed upon the bison by the public and the ability of the bison to survive in open agrolandscapes with fragmented forests, negative public opinion may be a factor limiting the social carrying capacity for the species. Lithuanian human dimensions of this species should be taken into account when introducing the European bison elsewhere in Western Europe.  相似文献
10.
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