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1.
We have investigated the cellular basis for the effects of oxidative stress on stomatal behavior using stomatal bioassay and ratio photometric techniques. Two oxidative treatments were employed in this study: (a) methyl viologen, which generates superoxide radicals, and (b) H2O2. Both methyl viologen and H2O2 inhibited stomatal opening and promoted stomatal closure. At concentrations [less than or equal to]10-5 M, the effects of methyl viologen and H2O2 on stomatal behavior were reversible and were abolished by 2 mM EGTA or 10 [mu]M verapamil. In addition, at 10-5 M, i.e. the maximum concentration at which the effects of the treatments were prevented by EGTA or verapamil, methyl viologen and H2O2 caused an increase in guard cell cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), which was abolished in the presence of EGTA. Therefore, at low concentrations of methyl viologen and H2O2, removal of extracellular Ca2+ prevented both the oxidative stress-induced changes in stomatal aperture and the associated increases in [Ca2+]i. This suggests that in this concentration range the effects of the treatments are Ca2+-dependent and are mediated by changes in [Ca2+]i. In contrast, at concentrations of methyl viologan and H2O2 > 10-5 M, EGTA and verapamil had no effect. However, in this concentration range the effects of the treatments were irreversible and correlated with a marked reduction in membrane integrity and guard cell viability. This suggests that at high concentrations the effects of methyl viologen and H2O2 may be due to changes in membrane integrity. The implications of oxidative stress-induced increases in [Ca2+]i and the possible disruption of guard-cell Ca2+ homeostasis are discussed in relation to the processes of Ca2+-based signal transduction in stomatal guard cells and the control of stomatal aperture.  相似文献
2.
Drought increased the pH of Commelina communis xylem sap from 6.1 to 6.7. Conductances of transpiring leaves were 50% lower in pH 7.0 than in pH 6.0 buffers, but bulk leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and shoot water status were unaffected by pH. Stomatal apertures of isolated abaxial epidermis incubated on simple buffers increased with external pH, so in vivo this must be overridden by alternative pH effects. Reductions in leaf transpiration rate at pH 7.0 were dependent on the presence of 10-8 mol dm-3 ABA in the xylem stream. We inferred that at pH 7.0 leaf apoplastic ABA concentrations increased: pH did not affect distributions of ABA among leaf tissues, but isolated epidermis and mesophyll tissue took up more 3H-ABA from pH 6.0 than from pH 7.0 buffers. The apoplastic ABA increase at pH 7.0 may result from reduced symplastic sequestration. A portion of 3H-ABA uptake by the epidermis was saturable at pH 6.0 but not at pH 7.0. An ABA uptake carrier may contribute to ABA sequestration by the leaf symplast of well-watered plants, and its inactivity at pH 7.0 may favor apoplastic ABA accumulation in draughted plants. Effects of external pH on stomatal apertures in the isolated epidermis indicate that published data supporting a role for internal guard cell ABA receptors should be reassessed.  相似文献
3.
How Do Stomata Read Abscisic Acid Signals?   总被引:22,自引:2,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
When abscisic acid (ABA) was fed to isolated epidermis of Commelina communis L., stomata showed marked sensitivity to concentrations of ABA lower than those commonly found in the xylem sap of well-watered plants. Stomata were also sensitive to the flux of hormone molecules across the epidermal strip. Stomata in intact leaves of Phaseolus acutifolius were much less sensitive to ABA delivered through the petiole than were stomata in isolated epidermis, suggesting that mesophyll tissue and/or xylem must substantially reduce the dose or activity of ABA received by guard cells. Delivery of the hormone to the leaf was varied by changing transpiration flux and/or concentration. Varying delivery by up to 7-fold by changing transpiration rate had little effect on conductance. At a given delivery rate, variation in concentration by 1 order of magnitude significantly affected conductance at all but the highest concentration fed. The results are discussed in terms of the control of stomatal behavior in the field, where the delivery of ABA to the leaf will vary greatly as a function of both the concentration of hormone in the xylem and the transpiration rate of the plant.  相似文献
4.
5.
Stimulus-Induced Oscillations in Guard Cell Cytosolic Free Calcium   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
Ca2+ is implicated as a second messenger in the response of stomata to a range of stimuli. However, the mechanism by which stimulus-induced increases in guard cell cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) are transduced into different physiological responses remains to be explained. Oscillations in [Ca2+]i may provide one way in which this can occur. We used photometric and imaging techniques to examine this hypothesis in guard cells of Commelina communis. External Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e), which causes an increase in [Ca2+]i, was used as a closing stimulus. The total increase in [Ca2+]i was directly related to the concentration of [Ca2+]e, both of which correlated closely with the degree of stomatal closure. Increases were oscillatory in nature, with the pattern of the oscillations dependent on the concentration of [Ca2+]e. At 0.1 mM, [Ca2+]e induced symmetrical oscillations. In contrast, 1.0 mM [Ca2+]e induced asymmetric oscillations. Oscillations were stimulus dependent and modulated by changing [Ca2+]e. Experiments using Ca2+ channel blockers and Mn2+-quenching studies suggested a role for Ca2+ influx during the oscillatory behavior without excluding the possible involvement of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. These data suggest a mechanism for encoding the information required to distinguish between a number of different Ca2+-mobilizing stimuli in guard cells, using stimulus-specific patterns of oscillations in [Ca2+]i.  相似文献
6.
7.
东亚飞蝗肠道细菌的研究   总被引:15,自引:8,他引:7  
目的从微生态学角度研究东亚飞蝗的营养生理活动。方法从东亚飞蝗自然种群的雌、雄成虫肠道环境中分离、纯化、培养,获得细菌16个属的菌株,对菌体形态、染色反应、培养性状、生理生化反应进行系统研究。结果上述16个细菌菌株分别属于沙雷菌属(Serratia)、短状杆菌属(Brachybacterium)、预研菌属(Yokenella)、肠杆菌属(Penterobacter)、微杆菌属(Microbacterium)、柠檬酸杆菌属(Citrobacter)、类芽胞杆菌属(Paenibacillus)、沙门菌属(Salmonella)、棍状杆菌属(Clavibacter)、放线杆菌属(Actinobacillus)、米勒菌属(Moelleralla)、不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、埃希菌属(Escherichia)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)、克吕沃尔菌属(Kluyvera)、克雷伯菌属(Kleb-siella)。结论东亚飞蝗雌性成虫肠道环境细菌种类为12个,雄性为10个,其中6个菌株相同;数量之间存在明显差异。  相似文献
8.
Abstract. Maize seedlings ( Zea mays L. John Innes F1 hybrid) were grown in a greenhouse in l-m-long tubes of soil. When the plants were well established, water was withheld from half of the tubes. Control plants were watered every day during the 20-d experimental period. The soil drying treatment resulted in a substantial restriction of stomatal conductance and a limitation in shoot growth, even though there was no detectable difference in the water relations of watered and unwatered plants. From day 7 of the soil drying treatment, xylem ABA concentrations (measured using the sap exuded from detopped plants) were substantially increased in unwatered plants compared to values recorded with sap from plants watered every day. Measurements of water potential through the profile of unwatered soil suggest that xylem ABA concentrations reflects the extent of soil drying. Leaf ABA content was a much less sensitive indicator of the effect of soil drying and during the whole of experimental period there was no significant difference between ABA concentration in leaves of well watered and unwatered plants. In a second set of experiments, ABA was fed to part of the roots of potted maize plants to manipulate xylem ABA concentration. These manipulations suggested that the increases in ABA concentration in xylem sap, which resulted from soil drying, were adequate to explain the observed variation in stomatal conductance and might also explain the restriction in leaf growth rate. These results are discussed in the light of recent work which suggests that stomatal responses to soil drying are partly attributable to an as-yet unidentified inhibitor of stomatal opening.  相似文献
9.
Respiration and nitrogen mineralization rates of humus samples from 7 Scots pine stands located along a climatic transect across the European continent from the Pyrenees (42°40) to northern Sweden (66°08) were measured for 14 weeks under laboratory conditions at temperatures from 5 °C to 25 °C. The average Q10 values for the respiration rate ranged from about 1.0 at the highest temperature to more than 5 at 10 °C to 15 °C in the northernmost samples. In samples from more northern sites, respiration rates remained approximately constant during the whole incubation period; in the southern end of the transect, rates decreased over time. Respiration rate was positively correlated with incubation temperature, soil pH and CN ratio, and negatively with soil total N. Regressions using all these variables explained approximately 71% of the total variability in the respiration rate. There was no clear relation between the nitrogen mineralization rate and incubation temperature. Below 15 °C the N-mineralization rate did not respond to increasing temperature; at higher temperatures, significant increases were found for samples from some sites. A regression model including incubation temperature, pH, Ntot and CN explained 73% of the total variability in N mineralization. The estimated increase in annual soil respiration rates due to predicted global warming at the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere ranged from approximately 0.07×1015 to 0.13×1015 g CO2 at 2 °C and 4 °C temperature increase scenarios, respectively. Both values are greater than the current annual net carbon storage in northern forests, suggesting a switch of these ecosystems from net sinks to net sources of carbon with global warming.  相似文献
10.
How Can Stomata Contribute to Salt Tolerance?   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
Although some of the physiological mechanisms which contributeto salt tolerance in plants are known, there are still somemajor gaps in understanding and it remains impossible to providea satisfactory integrated picture for the plant as a whole.The operation of stomata in halophytes has received little attentioneven though all of the salt present in the shoot (apart fromthat taken in during submergence) is thought to be carried inthe transpiration stream. In non-halophytes, stomatal functionis damaged by sodium ions, and disruption of the normal regulationof transpiration should be seen as a possible contributor totheir inability to survive in salt-laden soils. The developmentof salt-tolerant cultivars of crops may require attention tothe need for appropriate adaptations to the ionic relationsof stomatal guard cells. Despite the small amount of evidenceavailable, it is possible to identify two alternative adaptationsthat occur in the stomata of halophytes: (1) the guard cellscan utilize Na+instead of K+to achieve their normal regulationof turgor; (2) the guard cells continue to use K+and are ableto limit their intake of Na+. The second adaptation is worthyof further exploration because it may provide a means for ‘topdown’ control of transpiration and, therefore, of theamount of salt delivered to the shoot. This mechanism may bevery important in some of the glandless halophytes, and it couldbe of particular interest as a potential contributor to thedevelopment of salt tolerance in crops. Salt tolerance; stomata; transpiration; halophytes; ionic regulation; sodium ions  相似文献
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