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1.
We present here a new version of the Arlequin program available under three different forms: a Windows graphical version (Winarl35), a console version of Arlequin (arlecore), and a specific console version to compute summary statistics (arlsumstat). The command-line versions run under both Linux and Windows. The main innovations of the new version include enhanced outputs in XML format, the possibility to embed graphics displaying computation results directly into output files, and the implementation of a new method to detect loci under selection from genome scans. Command-line versions are designed to handle large series of files, and arlsumstat can be used to generate summary statistics from simulated data sets within an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework.  相似文献
2.
Tiunov AV  Scheu S 《Oecologia》2004,138(1):83-90
Activity of soil decomposer microorganisms is generally limited by carbon availability, but factors controlling saprophagous soil animals remain largely unknown. In contrast to microorganisms, animals are unable to exploit mineral nutrient pools. Therefore, it has been suggested that soil animals, and earthworms in particular, are limited by the availability of nitrogen. In contrast to this view, a strong increase in density and biomass of endogeic earthworms in response to labile organic carbon addition has been documented in field experiments. The hypothesis that the growth of endogeic earthworms is primarily limited by carbon availability was tested in a laboratory experiment lasting for 10 weeks. In addition, it was investigated whether the effects of earthworms on microbial activity and nutrient mineralization depend on the availability of carbon resources. We manipulated food availability to the endogeic earthworm species Octolasion tyrtaeum by using two soils with different organic matter content, providing access to different amounts of soil, and adding labile organic carbon (glucose) enriched in 13C.Glucose addition strongly increased the growth of O. tyrtaeum. From 8 to 17% of the total C in earthworm tissue was assimilated from the glucose added. Soil microbial biomass was not strongly affected by the addition of glucose, though basal respiration was significantly increased and up to 50% of the carbon added as glucose was incorporated into soil organic matter. The impact of earthworms on the mineralization and leaching of nitrogen depended on C availability. As expected, in C-limited soil, the presence of earthworms strongly increased nitrogen leaching. However, when C availability was increased by the addition of glucose, this pattern was reversed, i.e. the presence of O. tyrtaeum decreased nitrogen leaching and its availability to soil microflora. We conclude that irrespective of the total carbon content of soils, O. tyrtaeum was primarily limited by carbon, and that increased carbon availability allowed earthworms to be more effective in mobilizing N. The presence of earthworms increases C limitation of soil microorganisms, due to increased availability of N and P in earthworm casts or a direct depletion of easily available carbon resources by earthworms.  相似文献
3.
以快速城市化的广州市番禺区为研究样区,通过解译1990—2008年4期Landsat TM影像得到研究区土地利用/覆被数据.选取景观类型水平和景观水平上的景观指数,采用景观格局与梯度分析相结合的方法,研究快速城市化地区景观格局的梯度变化及其城乡融合区特征.结果表明:研究区景观格局动态变化显著,在城市化缓冲带上具有典型的城乡融合区特征,城市景观逐年增加且向外围扩展,而农业景观破碎化严重.斑块密度、蔓延度、景观多样性等指数在城市化梯度上表现出明显的规律性,景观指数峰值出现在距离城市中心4~6 km的梯度带上.时间序列上的景观格局数据体现了不同梯度带上景观动态的差异,城乡融合区景观格局具有斑块形状复杂、景观多样性和破碎化程度高、景观动态变化剧烈的特点.景观指数的峰值逐年向外推移,城乡融合区有逐渐向外发展的趋势.探讨了城乡融合区景观格局时空演化的一般特征及其驱动因素,对区域土地利用政策和可持续发展规划具有指导意义.  相似文献
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5.
Tropical forests continue to vanish rapidly,but few long-term studies have ever examined if and how the lost forests can be restored.Based on a 45-year restoration study in south China,we found that a tropical rain forest,once completely destroyed,could not recover naturally without deliberate restoration efforts.We identified two kinds of thresholds that must be overcome with human ameliorative measures before the ecosystem was able to recover.The first threshold was imposed primarily by extreme physical conditions such as exceedingly high surface temperature and impoverished soil,while the second was characterized by a critical level of biodiversity and a landscape context that accommodates dispersal and colonization processes.Our three treatment catchments(un-restored barren land,single-species plantation,and mixed-forest stand)exhibited dramatically different changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over 4 decades.The mixed forest,having the highest level of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning,possesses several major properties of tropical rain forest.These findings may have important implications for the restoration of many severely degraded or lost tropical forest ecosystems.  相似文献
6.
Morphological and physiological characteristics of leaves from plant species collected in steppe communities in the various climatic zones in Eurasia were compared. The changes in leaf structure correlated with the major climatic factors. The mean thickness of leaves increased with increasing mean temperature of July and decreasing mean precipitation, which corresponded to aridity increase. The increased leaf thickness correlated with an increase in the specific leaf weight. The content of chlorophylls (a + b) in leaves greatly varied with plant habitats, whereas the chlorophyll a/b ratio remained unchanged. The chlorophyll content in leaf tissues had a general tendency to decrease with increasing leaf thickness. The leaf chlorophyll content positively correlated (R 2 = 0.77) with the proportion of chlorenchyma in leaf tissues. It is concluded that steppe plants adapt to climate aridization at the structural level by increasing the proportion of protective heterotrophic components of the leaf without changing the functional activity of photosynthetic tissues.  相似文献
7.
Conservation and monitoring of forest biodiversity requires reliable information about forest structure and composition at multiple spatial scales. However, detailed data about forest habitat characteristics across large areas are often incomplete due to difficulties associated with field sampling methods. To overcome this limitation we employed a nationally available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing dataset to develop variables describing forest landscape structure across a large environmental gradient in Switzerland. Using a model species indicative of structurally rich mountain forests (hazel grouse Bonasa bonasia), we tested the potential of such variables to predict species occurrence and evaluated the additional benefit of LiDAR data when used in combination with traditional, sample plot-based field variables. We calibrated boosted regression trees (BRT) models for both variable sets separately and in combination, and compared the models’ accuracies. While both field-based and LiDAR models performed well, combining the two data sources improved the accuracy of the species’ habitat model. The variables retained from the two datasets held different types of information: field variables mostly quantified food resources and cover in the field and shrub layer, LiDAR variables characterized heterogeneity of vegetation structure which correlated with field variables describing the understory and ground vegetation. When combined with data on forest vegetation composition from field surveys, LiDAR provides valuable complementary information for encompassing species niches more comprehensively. Thus, LiDAR bridges the gap between precise, locally restricted field-data and coarse digital land cover information by reliably identifying habitat structure and quality across large areas.  相似文献
8.
Biological invasions cause ecological and economic impacts across the globe. However, it is unclear whether there are strong patterns in terms of their major effects, how the vulnerability of different ecosystems varies and which ecosystem services are at greatest risk. We present a global meta-analysis of 199 articles reporting 1041 field studies that in total describe the impacts of 135 alien plant taxa on resident species, communities and ecosystems. Across studies, alien plants had a significant effect in 11 of 24 different types of impact assessed. The magnitude and direction of the impact varied both within and between different types of impact. On average, abundance and diversity of the resident species decreased in invaded sites, whereas primary production and several ecosystem processes were enhanced. While alien N-fixing species had greater impacts on N-cycling variables, they did not consistently affect other impact types. The magnitude of the impacts was not significantly different between island and mainland ecosystems. Overall, alien species impacts are heterogeneous and not unidirectional even within particular impact types. Our analysis also reveals that by the time changes in nutrient cycling are detected, major impacts on plant species and communities are likely to have already occurred.  相似文献
9.
Interspecific hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes with extreme trait values exceeding the combined range of the parental species. Such variation can enlarge the working surface for natural selection, and may facilitate the evolution of novel adaptations where ecological opportunity exists. The number of quantitative trait loci fixed for different alleles in different species should increase with time since speciation. If transgression is caused by complementary gene action or epistasis, hybrids between more distant species should be more likely to display transgressive phenotypes. To test this prediction we collected data on transgression frequency from the literature, estimated genetic distances between the hybridizing species from gene sequences, and calculated the relationship between the two using phylogenetically controlled methods. We also tested if parental phenotypic divergence affected the occurrence of transgression. We found a highly significant positive correlation between transgression frequency and genetic distance in eudicot plants explaining 43% of the variance in transgression frequency. In total, 36% of the measured traits were transgressive. The predicted effect of time since speciation on transgressive segregation was unconfounded by the potentially conflicting effects of phenotypic differentiation between species. Our analysis demonstrates that the potential impact hybridization may have on phenotypic evolution is predictable from the genetic distance between species.  相似文献
10.
The Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) as a relict group   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
According to the fossil record and DNA data, the Cladocera is an ancient crustacean group. Recent revisions make their taxonomy amenable to zoogeographical analysis. A bipolar (antitropical) disjunct distribution of faunal complexes and taxa ( Daphnia , Daphniopsis , Pleuroxus , Tretocephala , etc.), the wide ranges of some species and narrow restriction of others, the presence of isolated populations and the concentration of endemics in the warm temperate – subtropical zone of both hemispheres are traits of cladoceran zoogeography. These enable us to compare them with better studied (both living and fossil) plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, and to analyse their faunal formation by the modern version of the concept of 'ejected relicts' instead of vicariance. This reveals the extant Cladocera as a relict group, whose taxa were widely distributed in the past. Tertiary climatic changes, primarily within the present tropical and boreal latitudes, resulted in mass extinction of their biotas, while the warm temperate – subtropical regions remained comparatively unchanged. Although most recent Cladocera have relict status, others such as the D. pulex and D. longispina species groups and the subgenus Eubosmina are evolutionary young and show recent speciation.  © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2006, 147 , 109–124.  相似文献
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