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1.
Evolution of the cytochromeb gene of mammals   总被引:98,自引:0,他引:98  
Summary With the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochromeb gene (∼ 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). The fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the cytochromeb DNA and amino acid sequences. The relative rates of substitution at first, second, and third positions within codons are in the ratio 10 to 1 to at least 33. For deep divergences (>5 million years) it appears that both replacements and silent transversions in this mitochondrial gene can be used for phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic findings include the association of (1) cetaceans, artiodactyls, and perissodactyls to the exclusion of elephants and humans, (2) pronghorn and fallow deer to the exclusion of bovids (i. e., cow, sheep, and goat), (3) sheep and goat to the exclusion of other pecorans (i. e., cow, giraffe, deer, and pronghorn), and (4) advanced ruminants to the exclusion of the chevrotain and other artiodactyls. Comparisons of these cytochromeb sequences support current structure-function models for this membrane-spanning protein. That part of the outer surface which includes the Qo redox center is more constrained than the remainder of the molecule, namely, the transmembrane segments and the surface that protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Many of the amino acid replacements within the transmembrane segments are exchanges between hydrophobic residues (especially leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Replacement changes at first and second positions of codons approximate a negative binomial distribution, similar to other protein-coding sequences. At four-fold degenerate positions of codons, the nucleotide substitutions approximate a Poisson distribution, implying that the underlying mutational spectrum is random with respect to position.  相似文献
2.
Biochemical Mutants in the Smut Fungus Ustilago Maydis   总被引:82,自引:0,他引:82       下载免费PDF全文
David D. Perkins 《Genetics》1949,34(5):607-626
3.
Ribosomal DNA: molecular evolution and phylogenetic inference.   总被引:76,自引:0,他引:76  
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences have been aligned and compared in a number of living organisms, and this approach has provided a wealth of information about phylogenetic relationships. Studies of rDNA sequences have been used to infer phylogenetic history across a very broad spectrum, from studies among the basal lineages of life to relationships among closely related species and populations. The reasons for the systematic versatility of rDNA include the numerous rates of evolution among different regions of rDNA (both among and within genes), the presence of many copies of most rDNA sequences per genome, and the pattern of concerted evolution that occurs among repeated copies. These features facilitate the analysis of rDNA by direct RNA sequencing, DNA sequencing (either by cloning or amplification), and restriction enzyme methodologies. Constraints imposed by secondary structure of rRNA and concerted evolution need to be considered in phylogenetic analyses, but these constraints do not appear to impede seriously the usefulness of rDNA. An analysis of aligned sequences of the four nuclear and two mitochondrial rRNA genes identified regions of these genes that are likely to be useful to address phylogenetic problems over a wide range of levels of divergence. In general, the small subunit nuclear sequences appear to be best for elucidating Precambrian divergences, the large subunit nuclear sequences for Paleozoic and Mesozoic divergences, and the organellar sequences of both subunits for Cenozoic divergences. Primer sequences were designed for use in amplifying the entire nuclear rDNA array in 15 sections by use of the polymerase chain reaction; these "universal" primers complement previously described primers for the mitochondrial rRNA genes. Pairs of primers can be selected in conjunction with the analysis of divergence of the rRNA genes to address systematic problems throughout the hierarchy of life.  相似文献
4.
Neural and developmental actions of lithium: a unifying hypothesis   总被引:53,自引:0,他引:53  
M J Berridge  C P Downes  M R Hanley 《Cell》1989,59(3):411-419
5.
Biological identifications through DNA barcodes   总被引:51,自引:0,他引:51  
Although much biological research depends upon species diagnoses, taxonomic expertise is collapsing. We are convinced that the sole prospect for a sustainable identification capability lies in the construction of systems that employ DNA sequences as taxon 'barcodes'. We establish that the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) can serve as the core of a global bioidentification system for animals. First, we demonstrate that COI profiles, derived from the low-density sampling of higher taxonomic categories, ordinarily assign newly analysed taxa to the appropriate phylum or order. Second, we demonstrate that species-level assignments can be obtained by creating comprehensive COI profiles. A model COI profile, based upon the analysis of a single individual from each of 200 closely allied species of lepidopterans, was 100% successful in correctly identifying subsequent specimens. When fully developed, a COI identification system will provide a reliable, cost-effective and accessible solution to the current problem of species identification. Its assembly will also generate important new insights into the diversification of life and the rules of molecular evolution.  相似文献
6.
Structure and evolution of teleost mitochondrial control regions   总被引:50,自引:0,他引:50  
We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial control region from 23 species representing six families of teleost fish. The length of this segment is highly variable among even closely related species due to the presence of tandemly repeated sequences and large insertions. The position of the repetitive sequences suggests that they arise during replication both near the origin of replication and at the site of termination of the D-loop strand. Many of the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) observed in mammals are also found among fish. In particular, the mammalian CSB-D is present in all of the fish species studied. Study of potential secondary structures of RNAs from the conserved regions provides little insight into the functional constraints on these regions. The variable structure of these control regions suggests that particular care should be taken to identify the most appropriate segment for studies of intraspecific variation. Correspondence to: T.D. Kocher  相似文献
7.
We have examined the time course of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the meiotic cell cycles of Xenopus laevis oocytes and the mitotic cell cycles of Xenopus eggs. We have identified two proteins that undergo marked changes in tyrosine phosphorylation during these processes: a 42-kDa protein related to mitogen-activated protein kinase or microtubule-associated protein-2 kinase (MAP kinase) and a 34-kDa protein identical or related to p34cdc2. p42 undergoes an abrupt increase in its tyrosine phosphorylation at the onset of meiosis 1 and remains tyrosine phosphorylated until 30 min after fertilization, at which point it is dephosphorylated. p42 also becomes tyrosine phosphorylated after microinjection of oocytes with partially purified M-phase-promoting factor, even in the presence of cycloheximide. These findings suggest that MAP kinase, previously implicated in the early responses of somatic cells to mitogens, is also activated at the onset of meiotic M phase and that MAP kinase can become tyrosine phosphorylated downstream from M-phase-promoting factor activation. We have also found that p34 goes through a cycle of tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation prior to meiosis 1 and mitosis 1 but is not detectable as a phosphotyrosyl protein during the 2nd through 12th mitotic cell cycles. It may be that the delay between assembly and activation of the cyclin-p34cdc2 complex that p34cdc2 tyrosine phosphorylation provides is not needed in cell cycles that lack G2 phases. Finally, an unidentified protein or group of proteins migrating at 100 to 116 kDa increase in tyrosine phosphorylation throughout maturation, are dephosphorylated or degraded within 10 min of fertilization, and appear to cycle between low-molecular-weight forms and high-molecular-weight forms during early embryogenesis.  相似文献
8.
Seven isolated large populations of Drosophila belonging to five different species were examined by starch gel electrophoresis for allozyme variation. Six to eleven enzyme loci in the glucose-metabolizing system (group I) and six to eight enzyme loci (group II) which were not directly involved in the above-mentioned system were assayed. The parameters estimated were the average number of alleles per locus, allele frequencies, proportions of polymorphic loci, and average heterozygosity per population for group I and group II loci. The major finding is that genetic variability measured by allozyme variations is much higher for group II than for group I enzymes in terms of every parameter in all the populations. This is consistent with the earlier findings in D. ananassae by Gillespie and Kojima (1968). Linkage disequilibrium, a measure of genome integration, was computed between an enzyme locus and an inversion segment of the same chromosome. The preliminary analysis of this aspect of the study indicates that no substantial linkage disequilibrium builds up between the chromosomal segments unless the pair of segments is less than 10 centimorgan units apart.This study was supported by USPHS Grant GM-15769 and Atomic Energy Commission Contract AT-(40-1)-3681.NIH Trainee supported by Grant 5 TO 1 GM 00337.  相似文献
9.
Cytosolic calcium oscillators   总被引:43,自引:0,他引:43  
Many cells display oscillations in intracellular calcium resulting from the periodic release of calcium from intracellular reservoirs. Frequencies are varied, but most oscillations have periods ranging from 5 to 60 s. For any given cell, frequency can vary depending on external conditions, particularly the concentration of natural stimuli or calcium. This cytosolic calcium oscillator is particularly sensitive to those stimuli (neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors) that hydrolyze phosphoinositides to give diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins1,4,5P3). The ability of Ins1,4,5P3 to mobilize intracellular calcium is a significant feature of many of the proposed models that are used to explain oscillatory activity. Receptor-controlled oscillator models propose that there are complex feedback mechanisms that generate oscillations in the level of Ins1,4,5P3. Second messenger-controlled oscillator models demonstrate that the oscillator is a component of the calcium reservoir, which is induced to release calcium by a constant input of either Ins1,4,5P3 or calcium itself. In the latter case, the process of calcium-induced calcium release might be the basis of oscillatory activity in many cell types. The function of calcium oscillations is still unknown. Because oscillator frequency can vary with agonist concentration, calcium transients might be part of a frequency-encoded signaling system. When an external stimulus arrives at the cell surface the information is translated into a train of calcium spikes, i.e., the signal is digitized. Certain cells may then convey information by varying the frequency of this digital signal.  相似文献
10.
Estimating the pattern of nucleotide substitution   总被引:42,自引:0,他引:42  
Knowledge of the pattern of nucleotide substitution is important both to our understanding of molecular sequence evolution and to reliable estimation of phylogenetic relationships. The method of parsimony analysis, which has been used to estimate substitution patterns in real sequences, has serious drawbacks and leads to results difficult to interpret. In this paper a model-based maximum likelihood approach is proposed for estimating substitution patterns in real sequences. Nucleotide substitution is assumed to follow a homogeneous Markov process, and the general reversible process model (REV) and the unrestricted model without the reversibility assumption are used. These models are also applied to examine the adequacy of the model of Hasegawa et al. (J. Mol. Evol. 1985;22:160–174) (HKY85). Two data sets are analyzed. For the -globin pseudogenes of six primate species, the REV model fits the data much better than HKY85, while, for a segment of mtDNA sequences from nine primates, REV cannot provide a significantly better fit than HKY85 when rate variation over sites is taken into account in the models. It is concluded that the use of the REV model in phylogenetic analysis can be recommended, especially for large data sets or for sequences with extreme substitution patterns, while HKY85 may be expected to provide a good approximation. The use of the unrestricted model does not appear to be worthwhile.  相似文献
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