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1.
The nutritional control of root development   总被引:50,自引:2,他引:48  
Root development is remarkably sensitive to variations in the supply and distribution of inorganic nutrients in the soil. Here we review examples of the ways in which nutrients such as N, P, K and Fe can affect developmental processes such as root branching, root hair production, root diameter, root growth angle, nodulation and proteoid root formation. The nutrient supply can affect root development either directly, as a result of changes in the external concentration of the nutrient, or indirectly through changes in the internal nutrient status of the plant. The direct pathway results in developmental responses that are localized to the part of the root exposed to the nutrient supply; the indirect pathway produces systemic responses and seems to depend on long-distance signals arising in the shoot. We propose the term `trophomorphogenesis' to describe the changes in plant morphology that arise from variations in the availability or distribution of nutrients in the environment. We discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of external and internal nutrient sensing, the possible nature of the long-distance signals and the role of hormones in the trophomorphogenic response.  相似文献
2.
A new cell division operon in Escherichia coli   总被引:37,自引:0,他引:37  
Summary At 76 min on theE. coli genetic map there is a cluster of genes affecting essential cellular functions, including the heat shock response and cell division. A combination ofin-vivo andin-vitro genetic analysis of cell division mutants suggests that the cell division genefts E is the second gene in a 3 gene operon. A cold-sensitive mutant, defective in the third gene, is also unable to divide at the restrictive temperature, and we designate this new cell division genefts X. Another cell division gene,fts S, is very close to, but distinct from, the 3 genes of the operon. Thefts E product is a 24.5 Kd polypeptide which shows strong homology with a small group of proteins involved in transport. Both thefts E product and the protein coded by the first gene (fts Y) in the operon have a sequence motif found in a wide range of heterogeneous proteins, including the Ras proteins of yeast. This common domain is indicative of a nucleotide-binding site.  相似文献
3.
Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
This article discusses the importance and implications of regulating carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis, the characteristics of cells that serve as major sinks for cellulose deposition, and enzymes that participate in the conversion of supplied carbon to cellulose. Cotton fibers, which deposit almost pure cellulose into their secondary cell walls, are referred to as a primary model system. For sucrose synthase, we discuss its proposed role in channeling UDP-Glc to cellulose synthase during secondary wall deposition, its gene family, its manipulation in transgenic plants, and mechanisms that may regulate its association with sites of polysaccharide synthesis. For cellulose synthase, we discuss the organization of the gene family and how protein diversity could relate to control of carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis. Other enzymes emphasized include UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase and sucrose phosphate synthase. New data are included on phosphorylation of cotton fiber sucrose synthase, possible regulation by Ca2+ of sucrose synthase localization, electron microscopic immunolocalization of sucrose synthase in cotton fibers, and phylogenetic relationships between cellulose synthase proteins, including three new ones identified in differentiating tracheary elements of Zinnia elegans. We develop a model for metabolism related to cellulose synthesis that implicates the changing intracellular localization of sucrose synthase as a molecular switch between survival metabolism and growth and/or differentiation processes involving cellulose synthesis. Abbreviations: CesA, cellulose synthase; Csl, cellulose-like synthase (genes); DCB, dichlobenil; DPA, days after anthesis; SPS, sucrose phosphate synthase; SuSy, sucrose synthase; P-SuSy, particulate SuSy; S-SuSy, soluble SuSy  相似文献
4.
Maximum rooting depth of vegetation types at the global scale   总被引:34,自引:0,他引:34  
The depth at which plants are able to grow roots has important implications for the whole ecosystem hydrological balance, as well as for carbon and nutrient cycling. Here we summarize what we know about the maximum rooting depth of species belonging to the major terrestrial biomes. We found 290 observations of maximum rooting depth in the literature which covered 253 woody and herbaceous species. Maximum rooting depth ranged from 0.3 m for some tundra species to 68 m for Boscia albitrunca in the central Kalahari; 194 species had roots at least 2 m deep, 50 species had roots at a depth of 5 m or more, and 22 species had roots as deep as 10 m or more. The average for the globe was 4.6±0.5 m. Maximum rooting depth by biome was 2.0±0.3 m for boreal forest. 2.1±0.2 m for cropland, 9.5±2.4 m for desert, 5.2±0.8 m for sclerophyllous shrubland and forest, 3.9±0.4 m for temperate coniferous forest, 2.9±0.2 m for temperate deciduous forest, 2.6±0.2 m for temperate grassland, 3.7±0.5 m for tropical deciduous forest, 7.3±2.8 m for tropical evergreen forest, 15.0±5.4 m for tropical grassland/savanna, and 0.5±0.1 m for tundra. Grouping all the species across biomes (except croplands) by three basic functional groups: trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, the maximum rooting depth was 7.0±1.2 m for trees, 5.1±0.8 m for shrubs, and 2.6±0.1 m for herbaceous plants. These data show that deep root habits are quite common in woody and herbaceous species across most of the terrestrial biomes, far deeper than the traditional view has held up to now. This finding has important implications for a better understanding of ecosystem function and its application in developing ecosystem models.  相似文献
5.
Transposable element contributions to plant gene and genome evolution   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
Transposable elements were first discovered in plants because they can have tremendous effects on genome structure and gene function. Although only a few or no elements may be active within a genome at any time in any individual, the genomic alterations they cause can have major outcomes for a species. All major element types appear to be present in all plant species, but their quantitative and qualitative contributions are enormously variable even between closely related lineages. In some large-genome plants, mobile DNAs make up the majority of the nuclear genome. They can rearrange genomes and alter individual gene structure and regulation through any of the activities they promote: transposition, insertion, excision, chromosome breakage, and ectopic recombination. Many genes may have been assembled or amplified through the action of transposable elements, and it is likely that most plant genes contain legacies of multiple transposable element insertions into promoters. Because chromosomal rearrangements can lead to speciating infertility in heterozygous progeny, transposable elements may be responsible for the rate at which such incompatibility is generated in separated populations. For these reasons, understanding plant gene and genome evolution is only possible if we comprehend the contributions of transposable elements.  相似文献
6.
Abstract Carbon substrate utilization patterns have found increasing use in environmental and ecological microbiology over the past five years. Ninety six-well microtiter plates containing various carbon substrates permit these patterns to be determined quickly, economically, and effectively. The use of these patterns to characterize and differentiate strains isolated from the environment has been very effective in providing information on the culturable fraction of the microbial community. Another approach involves the direct inoculation of natural samples into these microtiter plates; this approach has several fundamental problems. The inoculation of low cell densities into the wells means that the technique is a culture-based method in which the biases of enrichment culture may render the results unrepresentative of the native microbiota. The physiological state of the inoculated microbes may affect the kinetics and pattern of substrate utilization. As a measure of the functional diversity of microbial communities, this approach suffers because the tested substrates do not accurately represent the types of substrates present in ecosystems, and the metabolic redundancy of species implies that changes in the response may only crudely represent the actual microbial population dynamics. Therefore, although this approach can be used to determine whether environmental samples differ in their response patterns, it is unclear how it can be used to provide fundamental information on questions of microbial diversity. Received: 14 March 1997; Accepted: 2 June 1997  相似文献
7.
PH as a stress signal   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
The pH of the xylem sap of plants experiencing a range of environmental conditions can increase by over a whole pH unit. This results in an increased ABA concentration in the apoplast adjacent to the stomatal guard cells in the leaf epidermis, by reducing the ability of the mesophyll and epidermal symplast to sequester ABA away from this compartment. As a result the guard cell ABA receptors become activated and the stomata close, enabling the plant to retain water. Were it not for the low concentration of ABA ubiquitous to all land plants, the increase in the pH of the apoplast adjacent to the guard cell would induce stomatal widening, and cause excessive water loss. Not only does ABA prevent this potentially harmful phenomenon, but it also converts the pH increase to a signal which can bring about plant protection.  相似文献
8.
Dissolved Organic Carbon in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Synthesis and a Model   总被引:29,自引:3,他引:26  
The movement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through soils is an important process for the transport of carbon within ecosystems and the formation of soil organic matter. In some cases, DOC fluxes may also contribute to the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems; in most ecosystems, they are an important source of energy, carbon, and nutrient transfers from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Despite their importance for terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemistry, these fluxes are rarely represented in conceptual or numerical models of terrestrial biogeochemistry. In part, this is due to the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the suite of processes that control DOC dynamics in soils. In this article, we synthesize information on the geochemical and biological factors that control DOC fluxes through soils. We focus on conceptual issues and quantitative evaluations of key process rates to present a general numerical model of DOC dynamics. We then test the sensitivity of the model to variation in the controlling parameters to highlight both the significance of DOC fluxes to terrestrial carbon processes and the key uncertainties that require additional experiments and data. Simulation model results indicate the importance of representing both root carbon inputs and soluble carbon fluxes to predict the quantity and distribution of soil carbon in soil layers. For a test case in a temperate forest, DOC contributed 25% of the total soil profile carbon, whereas roots provided the remainder. The analysis also shows that physical factors—most notably, sorption dynamics and hydrology—play the dominant role in regulating DOC losses from terrestrial ecosystems but that interactions between hydrology and microbial–DOC relationships are important in regulating the fluxes of DOC in the litter and surface soil horizons. The model also indicates that DOC fluxes to deeper soil layers can support a large fraction (up to 30%) of microbial activity below 40 cm. Received 14 January 2000; accepted 6 September 2000  相似文献
9.
The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line which expresses high levels of GNA has been shown to have enhanced resistance toM. persicae in leaf disc and whole plant bioassays,demonstrating the potential for extending transgenic plant technology to the control of sap-sucking insect pests.  相似文献
10.
Mechanisms and rates of genome expansion and contraction in flowering plants   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
Bennetzen JL 《Genetica》2002,115(1):29-36
Plant genomes are exceptional for their great variation in genome size, an outcome derived primarily from their frequent polyploid origins and from the amplification of retrotransposons. Although most studies of plant genome size variation have focused on developmental or physiological effects of nuclear DNA content that might influence plant fitness, more recent studies have begun to investigate possible mechanisms for plant genome expansion and contraction. Analyses of relatively neutral genome components, like transposable elements, have been particularly fruitful, largely due to the enormous growth in genomic sequence information from many different plant species. Current data suggest that unequal recombination can slow the growth in genome size caused by retrotransposon amplification, but that illegitimate recombination and other deletion processes may be primarily responsible for the removal of non-essential DNA from small genome plants.  相似文献
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