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1.
关于植物核型分析的标准化问题   总被引:601,自引:25,他引:576       下载免费PDF全文
近年,我国的植物染色体研究工作,进展较快,并取得了显著的成绩。但在研究工作中仍存在一个迫切需要解决的问题,即核型分析的标准化问题。由于国际上尚无植物核型分析的共同标准,因此,有关染色体的统计、测量、命名、图表格式等等,各人所采用的方法和标准也不尽相同。这种状况,对核型资料的比较分析以及对研究结果的评价,都带来不便。有鉴于此,1984年8月在辽宁兴城召开的第一届全国植物染色体学术讨论会上,李懋学和陈瑞阳联名作了“关于植物核型分析的标准化问题”的报告,经过  相似文献
2.
中国森林碳动态及其对全球碳平衡的贡献   总被引:223,自引:22,他引:201       下载免费PDF全文
利用我国第一次(1973-1976年)至第四次(1989-1993年)森林资源清查资料,依据建立的不同森林类型生物量和蓄积量之间的回归方程,对我国近20a来森林的碳储量进行了推算。结果表明:我国4次森林资源清查中森林的总碳储量分别是3.75、4.12、4.06和4.20PgC,虽然存在一定的波动现象,但总体呈增加的趋势,自第1次森林资源清查末期至第4次清查结束的17a间,我国森林共增加0.45Pg  相似文献
3.
Summary Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or transition type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or transversion type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = — (1/2) ln {(1 — 2P — Q) }. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = — (1/2) ln (1 — 2P — Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.Contribution No. 1330 from the National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 411 Japan  相似文献
4.
中国外来入侵生物的危害与管理对策   总被引:191,自引:3,他引:188       下载免费PDF全文
本文探讨了外来入侵生物的概念及其在我国的危害状况,入侵原因,提出了外来入侵生物 预防及管理对策,随着国际贸易往来和旅游业的发展,生物入侵在我国不断加剧,正在成为威胁我国生物多样性与生态环境的重要因素之一,外来入侵种的生态代价是造成本地物种多样性不可弥补的消失以及物种的灭绝,其经济代价是农林牧渔业产量与质量的惨重损失与高额的防治费用,生物入侵在我国大部分是由于人为因素引起的,这些因素包括:缺乏对引进种的利益与风险进行评估,淡薄的生态意识与不顾生态后果的经济利益驱使下的盲目引进,缺乏严格的科学监管体系或监管不力,缺乏全面检疫的体系与机制。外来入侵生物的综合性与系统性研究已成为当今我国生态环境保护、农业生产和经济可持续发展的重大研究领域,我国对外来入侵生物的预防与管理应着重于国家能力、研究能力,监测与管理能力三大体系的建设上,根据我国国情和目前的紧急现状应制定出优先行动计划,对特定外来种的入侵生物学基础研究,特定生态系统或地理区域入侵种现状及影响的关键评估研究,特定外来入侵生物对生态环境影响的风险评估体系及经济损失的模式研究、发展控制外来有害生物的环保型技术与方法研究,外来生物受控制后生态系统的恢复与栖息生境的复原技术与方法等,无意 目前亟待研究的课题。  相似文献
5.
We have developed a non-radioactive in situ hybridization technique for the localization of RNA in whole mount Drosophila embryos. After fixation, whole embryos are hybridized in situ with a DNA probe which has been labeled with digoxygenin. The hybridization products are detected by using a phosphatase-coupled antibody against digoxygenin. In parallel experiments, embryos can be treated with an antibody directed against the corresponding protein product to allow the detection of its distribution using standard immunochemical techniques. We have used this approach to compare the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of the RNA and protein products of the segmentation gene hunchback (hb) during the early stages of embryogenesis. This comparison revealed translational control of the maternally derived hb mRNA, which was difficult to detect by conventional techniques. The non-radioactive in situ hybridization method is as sensitive as conventional methods, but is faster and easier to perform. This may make it a useful tool for a variety of other systems.  相似文献
6.
We developed a simple marker technique called sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) aimed for the amplification of open reading frames (ORFs). It is based on two-primer amplification. The primers are 17 or 18 nucleotides long and consist of the following elements. Core sequences, which are 13 to 14 bases long, where the first 10 or 11 bases starting at the 5′ end, are sequences of no specific constitution (”filler” sequences), followed by the sequence CCGG in the forward primer and AATT in the reverse primer. The core is followed by three selective nucleotides at the 3′ end. The filler sequences of the forward and reverse primers must be different from each other and can be 10 or 11 bases long. For the first five cycles the annealing temperature is set at 35°C. The following 35 cycles are run at 50°C. The amplified DNA fragments are separated by denaturing acrylamide gels and detected by autoradiography. We tested the marker technique in a series of recombinant inbred and doubled-haploid lines of Brassica oleracea L. After sequencing, approximately 45% of the gel-isolated bands matched known genes in the Genbank database. Twenty percent of the SRAP markers were co-dominant, which was demonstrated by sequencing. Construction of a linkage map revealed an even distribution of the SRAP markers in nine major linkage groups, not differing in this regard to AFLP markers. We successfully tagged the glucosinolate desaturation gene BoGLS-ALK with these markers. SRAPs were also easily amplified in other crops such as potato, rice, lettuce, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), garlic, apple, citrus, and celery. We also amplified cDNA isolated from different tissues of Chinese cabbage, allowing the fingerprinting of these sequences. Received: 3 November 2000 / Accepted 24 November 2000  相似文献
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9.
The biology of VEGF and its receptors   总被引:136,自引:0,他引:136  
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiological angiogenesis during embryogenesis, skeletal growth and reproductive functions. VEGF has also been implicated in pathological angiogenesis associated with tumors, intraocular neovascular disorders and other conditions. The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, which differ considerably in signaling properties. Non-signaling co-receptors also modulate VEGF RTK signaling. Currently, several VEGF inhibitors are undergoing clinical testing in several malignancies. VEGF inhibition is also being tested as a strategy for the prevention of angiogenesis, vascular leakage and visual loss in age-related macular degeneration.  相似文献
10.
Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle   总被引:135,自引:7,他引:128  
Soil respiration is the primary path by which CO2fixed by land plants returns to the atmosphere. Estimated at approximately 75 × 1015gC/yr, this large natural flux is likely to increase due changes in the Earth's condition. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief scientific review for policymakers who are concerned that changes in soil respiration may contribute to the rise in CO2in Earth's atmosphere. Rising concentrations of CO2in the atmosphere will increase the flux of CO2from soils, while simultaneously leaving a greater store of carbon in the soil. Traditional tillage cultivation and rising temperature increase the flux of CO2from soils without increasing the stock of soil organic matter. Increasing deposition of nitrogen from the atmosphere may lead to the sequestration of carbon in vegetation and soils. The response of the land biosphere to simultaneous changes in all of these factors is unknown, but a large increase in the soil carbon pool seems unlikely to moderate the rise in atmospheric CO2during the next century.  相似文献
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