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1.
组织蛋白酶D的功能多样性   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
组织蛋白酶D(cathepsin D,CTSD)是真核细胞溶酶体中天冬氨酸蛋白酶家族的主要成员,具有非常独特的合成和转运方式.CTSD由粗面内质网合成,通过多种蛋白质水解途径最终抵达细胞内的小泡结构(溶酶体、核内体、吞噬体),从而发挥其生物学功能.早期认为,CTSD在溶酶体中只参与蛋白质的水解作用.近年研究发现,CTSD在多种生理(细胞增殖、细胞凋亡、细胞衰老和组织内稳态)和病理(阿尔茨海默病、动脉粥样硬化、先天性肌肉萎缩和癌症)条件中均发挥重要作用,并因其生物学功能的多样性而受到广泛关注.本文将着重对CTSD的生物合成与激活、生物学功能及临床应用进行综述,以期为疾病的诊断与治疗、药物的研发与筛选提供前沿的理论依据,为人类健康带来新的希望.  相似文献
2.
Glycogen serves as a metabolic reserve and is involved in macromolecular synthesis. Glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) is a key enzyme involved in intracellular glycogen catabolism, catalyzing the first step in glycogen degradation. In the diapause, GPase catalyzes glycogen into the closely related molecule, sorbitol. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the GPase gene (2,790 bp) was isolated from Artemia sinica for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology. The GPase gene encoded a protein of 853 amino acids belonging to the Glycosyltransferase GTB type superfamily. The expression pattern and location of GPase were investigated at various stages during the embryonic development of A. sinica using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. High GPase expression was detected at the 0 and 5 h stages. Subsequently, expression declined and was maintained at a low level during the stages from 10 to 40 h following by a small increase at day 3. Expression was downregulated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 20 °C and was subsequently upregulated in the range 15–5 °C. In situ hybridization assays showed wide distribution of the GPase gene during different developmental stages. From the results of this study, we conclude that the GPase gene expression is stress-related and might play an important role in Artemia development and metabolism.  相似文献
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非生物胁迫相关NAC转录因子的结构及功能   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
NAC是植物特有的一类转录因子,参与植物多个生长发育过程,还参与植物对逆境胁迫的响应。本文对非生物胁迫相关NAC转录因子的结构特征、功能预测、表达特性、在转基因植物中的作用及调控路径进行综述。非生物胁迫相关NAC转录因子具有典型的NAc胁迫亚家族结构特征,根据这些结构特征可以预测其功能;非生物胁迫相关NAc转录因子能响应多种非生物胁迫,其转基因过表达大多能使转基因植物提高一种或几种胁迫耐受性;非生物胁迫相关NAc转录因子有着复杂的调控路径。这些NAc转录因子可用于提高转基因植物的逆境耐受性。  相似文献
5.
组织蛋白酶L的结构与功能   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
组织蛋白酶L(cathepsin L,CTSL)是溶酶体半胱氨酸蛋白酶家族的主要成员,具有非常独特的合成和转运方式.CTSL前体酶原的前体肽含有ERF/WNIN模体和GNFD 模体.CTSL的空间结构主要由α螺旋构成的L结构域以及由β折叠构成的R结构域组成.大量研究工作表明,CTSL在体内生理和病理过程中,以及在寄生动物中都发挥着极其重要的功能.其生理作用广泛涉及到蛋白质水解、抗原提呈、T细胞分选、细胞凋亡以及胚胎发育等方面.CTSL还与多种类型的肿瘤发生、心血管疾病以及肾病等密切相关.另外,CTSL在寄生动物中也发挥着独特的作用.本文针对CTST的最新研究进展做了简要总结及分析,并指出了相关研究的发展趋势.  相似文献
6.
秦皮素对大肠埃希菌作用机制的初步研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的以大肠埃希菌ATCC 25922为供试菌,探讨秦皮素的抑菌活性及其作用机制。方法利用TTC法测定秦皮素对大肠埃希菌ATCC 25922的最低抑菌浓度;通过测定加药前后菌体培养液电导率和大分子的变化及观察扫描电镜和透射电镜电镜结果,分析秦皮素对其细胞膜的影响;通过SDS-PAGE测定秦皮素对供试菌株蛋白含量的影响;采用逐个检出法研究秦皮素对大肠埃希菌ATCC 25922质粒合成的抑制作用。结果秦皮素可抑制大肠埃希菌ATCC 25922的生长,其最低抑菌浓度为40μg/mL。秦皮素作用菌体5 h后,培养液中的电导率比对照组增加1.96%,但DNA和RNA大分子增加的不明显。秦皮素作用大肠埃希菌20 h后,菌体可溶性蛋白总量比对照组降低42%。秦皮素对大肠埃希菌的质粒有消除作用,药物作用48 h后,秦皮素对大肠埃希菌的质粒消除率为60.3%。结论秦皮素可抑制大肠埃希菌的生长,其抑菌作用机制与抑制菌体内蛋白质合成和消除菌体内的质粒有关,但对大肠埃希菌细胞膜的影响不大。  相似文献
7.
The absorption of phospholipid may improve the fluidity of membrane and enzyme activities. Phospholipids also play a role in promoting Caveolae formation and membrane synthesis. Caveolin-1 has a significant effect on signaling pathways involved in regulating cell proliferation and stress responsiveness. Thus, we can speculate that Caveolin-1 could affect the sense of environmental stress. We use Chang liver cell line to investigate the ability of Caveolin-1 to modulate the cellular response to ethanol injury. Caveolin-1 downregulate cells (Cav-1?/?) were established by stable transfecting with psiRNA-CAV1 plasmids, which were more sensitive to toxic effects of ethanol than the untransfected parental cells (WT). Releasing of ALT and electric conductivity were changed significantly in Cav-1?/? cells compared with WT. Caveolin-1 gene silencing could obviously down-regulate the activities of protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) and phospho-p42/44 MAP kinase, indicating cell proliferation and self-repairing abilities were inhibited. However, the levels of Caveolin-1 and PKC-α were increased by phosphatidylcholine administration. The results indicated that the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by phosphatidylcholine could lead to the prevention of membrane disruption, which closely correlated with the level of Caveolin-1. Since the protective effects of phosphatidylcholine against ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation might be regulated by phospholipid-PKC-α signaling pathway, related with Caveolin-1, the potential effects of phosphatidylcholine on membranes need to be verified.  相似文献
8.
Dental caries and periodontitis are common bacterial mouth infections. As a potentially attractive substitute for conventional antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have been widely tested and used for controlling bacterial infections. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the peptides from the skin secretions of Rana chensinensis for killing several major cariogenic and periodontic pathogens as well as Candida albicans. L-K6, a temporin-1CEb analog, exhibited high antimicrobial activity against the tested oral pathogens and was able to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and reduce 1-day-old S. mutans biofilms with a minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and reducing concentration of 3.13 and 6.25 μM, respectively. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the peptide significantly reduced cell viability within oral biofilms. Furthermore, as little as 5 μM L-K6 significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interleukin-1β-induced productions of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α from THP-1 monocytic cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with the binding of L-K6 to LPS and neutralizing LPS-induced proinflammatory responses in THP-1 cells, as well as dissociating LPS aggregates. Our results suggest that L-K6 may have potential clinical applications in treating dental caries by killing S. mutans within dental plaque and acting as anti-inflammatory agents in infected tissues.  相似文献
9.
Elongator proteins comprise six subunits (ELP1–ELP6) and form protein complexes. The elongator protein 2 gene (elp2) encodes a protein with a WD40 repeats domain that acts as a scaffold for complex assembly. It also plays an important role in growth and development. In this study, the full-length cDNA of elongator protein 2 (Ajelp2) was cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (A. japonicus) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR techniques and comprised 3,058 bp, including a 54 bp 5′ untranslated (UTR), a 526 bp 3′ UTR and a 2,478 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 825 amino acids. The Ajelp2 sequence showed high homology to 12 other species. The molecular weight and isoelectric of point the presumptive protein were 91.6 kDa and 5.84, respectively. In situ hybridization indicated that the gene is expressed in the body wall, intestine, respiratory tree and longitudinal muscle. The expression level of Ajelp2 increased in recovering of organs in sea cucumber and showed it’s the highest expression level at the 15th day in the intestine and respiratory tree. Its expression then gradually decreased to normal levels. In the body wall, the expression level of Ajelp2 was up-regulated and then down-regulated. These results indicated that Ajelp2 is involved in protein regulation during the regeneration process in the sea cucumber A. japonicus.  相似文献
10.
Fibrinogen-like protein A (FGLA), a member of the fibrinogen-related protein superfamily, exists in different tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates. FGLA plays crucial roles including innate immune response, blood clotting and regeneration. In this study, the fibrinogen-like protein A (fglA) was cloned from Apostichopus japonicus using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR techniques. The cDNA sequence of fglA is 1,524 bp with a 849 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 282 amino acids, with an N-terminal signal peptide and a conserved C-terminal domain. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the predicted molecular weight of the whole protein is 31.9 kDa and it has an isoelectric point of 5.64. In-situ hybridization demonstrated that fglA is widely distributed in body wall, intestines, longitudinal muscles and respiratory tree. The expression levels of fglA during different regeneration stages in the body wall, intestine and respiratory trees were analyzed by real-time PCR. The expression of fglA gradually increased within 1 h in body wall, and reached a plateau before decreasing to the basal level. This indicates that fglA is associated with the regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus.  相似文献
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