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1.
 以三江源地区主要草地类型为研究对象,分析了不同草地类型土壤有机碳和全氮的变化特征及其与环境因子、土壤特征等的相互关系。结果表明:沿着海拔的逐渐升高,土壤有机碳和全氮含量均呈现出 “V"字形变化规律,即土壤有机碳氮含量在海拔最高处(5 120 m )和最低处(4 176 m)比较高,而在中间海拔梯度较低,土壤有机碳与全氮含量极显著相 关(r= 0.905)且高寒草甸土壤碳、氮含量高于高山草原土壤碳、氮含量;土壤中有机碳含量和全氮含量均随着土壤含水量的增加而增加,偏相关分析结果表明:对0~30 cm土层中土壤有机碳和土壤全氮影响最大的是土壤含水量,偏相关系数为0.946 5、0.905 9(p<0.01);土壤有机碳含量和全氮含量与植被盖度和草地生产力存在正相关趋势;土壤有机碳含量和全氮含量与土壤pH值和全盐量存在负相关趋势。  相似文献
2.
以矮嵩草无性系分株和分蘖分别作为其种群的基本单元,对不同放牧强度下种群的动态与调节进行了研究。结果表明:随着放牧强度的增加,每分株的分蘖数、叶片数及分株个体地上生物量均增加.分蘖死亡率和叶片死亡率在各处理间差异不显著。分蘖死亡率的高峰出现在生长季末,叶片死亡率在生长初期和末期较高,而且都不属于密度制约性的死亡。矮嵩草多重种群结构水平的数量调节是由最外层次(叶片层次)的数量变化引起的,进而影响到较内层次上结构单元的大小和数量。  相似文献
3.
蚜虱净对苜蓿田节肢动物群落结构及动态的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
刘长仲  王刚  严林 《应用生态学报》2007,18(10):2379-2383
以物种丰富度(S)、个体数量(N)、香农指数(Shannon’sindex,H′)和均匀度指数(E)作为多样性指标,研究了蚜虱净对苜蓿田节肢动物群落结构和季节动态的影响.结果表明:蚜虱净对天敌亚群落物种数的影响大于害虫亚群落,使总群落和害虫亚群落的优势集中性显著增加,但5月底施药对传粉蜜蜂类亚群落的优势集中性无显著影响.喷药初期,蚜虱净显著降低了蚜虫、蓟马等害虫数量,7d后蚜虫、蓟马等种群数量迅速回升,40d后超过对照;施药初期天敌亚群落的物种数大幅减少,多样性和均匀度指数较低,7d后天敌的物种数逐渐回升,到后期与对照田基本一致,但个体数量一直未恢复至对照水平.  相似文献
4.
The role of wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been greatly debated and remains an unresolved question. However, analyses to determine involvement of wild birds have been hindered by the lack of basic information on their movements in central Asia. Thus, we initiated a programme to document migrations of waterfowl in Asian flyways to inform hypotheses of H5N1 transmission. As part of this work, we studied migration of waterfowl from Qinghai Lake, China, site of the 2005 H5N1 outbreak in wild birds. We examined the null hypothesis that no direct migratory connection existed between Qinghai Lake and H5N1 outbreak areas in central Mongolia, as suggested by some H5N1 phylogeny studies. We captured individuals in 2007 from two of the species that died in the Qinghai Lake outbreaks and marked them with GPS satellite transmitters: Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus ( n  =   14) and Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea ( n  =   11). Three of 25 marked birds (one Goose and two Shelducks) migrated to breeding grounds near H5N1 outbreak areas in Mongolia. Our results describe a previously unknown migratory link between the two regions and offer new critical information on migratory movements in the region.  相似文献
5.
6.

Aims

To determine the effect of grassland degradation on the soil carbon pool in alpine grassland.

Methods

In this study, we calculated the carbon pool in the above-and below-ground biomass, the soil microbial biomass carbon pool, the total organic carbon pool and the soil total carbon.

Results

Grassland degradation has resulted in decreases in biomass and carbon content and has changed the ratio of roots to shoots. However, there was less influence of degradation on dead root biomass. There was most likely a lag effect of changes in dead root biomass following grassland degradation. In the alpine grassland ecosystem, the carbon pool in soil accounts for more than 92 % of the total carbon both in vegetation and soil. The carbon in alpine grassland is stored primarily in the form of total organic carbon below-ground. As organic carbon decreases, the ratio of the microbial biomass carbon pool to the total organic carbon pool increases and then declines with increasing degradation level. Along the grassland degradation gradient, the total vegetation biomass (above-and below-ground) and the soil carbon pool (microbial biomass C, total organic C and total C) all decreased.  相似文献
7.

Background and Aims

Fenced enclosures have become an important method for re-establishing degraded grassland on the Tibetan plateau, and examination of soil seed banks may provide useful insights to understanding the effects and mechanisms of fencing enclosure on the restoration.

Methods

An investigation was conducted into the effects of enclosure for 3 years on the soil seed banks of degraded natural and sown grasslands at eight study sites. Species composition, soil seed bank density and the relationships with above-ground vegetation were analysed based on 4800 soil core samples and counting of seeds extracted from soil samples.

Results

After 3 years of fencing enclosure, soil seed banks differed between the different communities across the study sites. Species numbers and seed density in soil seed banks decreased from natural grassland to sown grassland, with most seeds occurring in the upper 5 cm soil layer. In these alpine grasslands, relatively few species produced high numbers of seeds, although their occurrence across the eight study sites was variable. Total vegetation cover increased with enclosure due to the colonization capacity of the vegetation rather than soil seed banks.

Conclusions

This study provided evidence that soil seed banks do not play an important role in the restoration of degraded alpine grassland when using fencing enclosures. Further studies conducted over longer periods are needed to address this subject.  相似文献
8.
Seed rain is a crucial element in vegetation regeneration, but has been rarely studied in high altitude regions, particularly degraded Kobresia meadow. Weed infestation is a distinctive feature of pasture degradation in Kobresia meadows on the Tibetan plateau, the ecological mechanism of which is closely related with vegetation’s seed rain. In this paper we assess the effect of vegetation degradation on seed rain and consider its implication for restoration of degraded Kobresia meadows in the headwater area of Yellow river, through analysis of seed species composition, number of seeds landing per m2 of soil surface, and their relationship with above ground vegetation. Vegetation degradation had an impact on the species composition and numbers of seeds in seed rain and their relationship with above-ground vegetation. Within the un-degraded meadow, which provided a closed vegetation cover, 35 % of the seed rain was of sedge and gramineae species. However, within the degraded meadows, as the extent of degradation increased, so the total number of seeds m?2 increased, with those derived from sedge and gramineae species forming a declining proportion of the total. Degradation of Kobresia meadow on the Tibetan plateau is exacerbated by the seed input of weed species (such as Oxytropis ochrocephala, Carum carvi, Aconitum pendulum, Pedicularis kansuensis in this study). Therefore, a major priority for the restoration of such degraded meadows should be the elimination of these weeds from the above ground vegetation by human intervention.  相似文献
9.
冬虫夏草是真菌与昆虫形成的复合生物体,本研究建立了一种可同时提取冬虫夏草真菌子座和虫体全部基因组DNA的方法。该方法稳定高效,简便易行,提取纯度高,适用于冬虫夏草多重PCR、Realtime-PCR和DNA指纹图谱等分子水平的研究。  相似文献
10.
Elymus natans is a dominant native species widely planted to restore the heavily degraded alpine meadows in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. The objective of this study was to determine how E. natans establishment affected the quality and fertility of a heavily degraded soil. Soil samples (at depths of 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) were collected from the 3- and 7-year-old E. natans re-vegetated grasslands, and in the heavily degraded alpine meadow (control). The establishment of E. natans promoted plant cover and aboveground biomass. Compared to the non-reseeded meadow, the concentration of total organic C increased by 13% in the soil under 3-year-old reseeded E. natans grassland at 0–10 cm, and by 7–33% in the soil under 7-year-old reseeded E. natans grassland at 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm depths. Rapid increases in total and available N were also observed in two E. natans re-vegetated grasslands, especially in the 0–10 cm soil layer. Across three sampling depths, total P concentration was increased by 17–35% and 18–54% in 3- and 7-year-old reseeded soil respectively, compared to the soil of control. After 3 years of E. natans growth, microbial biomass C increased by 13–58% at 0–10 and 10–20 cm layers; while it increased by 43–87% in 7-year-old reseeded treatment at 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm depths relative to control. A similar increasing trend was observed for microbial biomass N and P generally. Significant increase in neutral phosphatase, urease, catalase and dehydrogenase was also found in 3- and 7-year-old re-vegetated grasslands compared with heavily degraded meadow. Our results suggest a significant positive impact of E. natans establishment on soil quality. Thus, E. natans establishment could be an effective and applicable measure in restoring heavily degraded alpine meadow in the region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.  相似文献
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