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1.
气候变化背景下我国东北三省农业气候资源变化特征   总被引:39,自引:5,他引:34       下载免费PDF全文
基于1961—2007年中国东北三省72个气象台站的气象资料,分析了东北三省全年及温度生长期内的平均气温、≥10 ℃积温、降水量、日照时数和参考作物蒸散量等农业气候资源的变化特征.结果表明:研究期间,东北三省年均气温总体呈升高趋势,其气候倾向率为0.38 ℃·10 a-1;温度生长期内≥10 ℃积温同样呈上升趋势,且积温带逐渐北移东扩,全区高于3200 ℃·d积温带面积增加了2.2×104 km2,2800~3200 ℃·d积温带北移0.85°、东移0.67°,2400~2800 ℃·d积温带北移1.1°;东北三省年日照时数显著下降,且以松嫩平原东部、吉林省中西部平原、辽河平原西部的减少尤为明显,全区年日照时数高于2800 h的区域面积由13.6×104 km2缩小到4.1×104 km2,2600~2800 h的区域向西推进了1.5°;全区温度生长期内日照时数平均为1174 h,与1961—1980年相比,1981—2007年温度生长期内的日照时数高值区明显减少,日照时数1200~1400 h的区域向西推进了0.9°;1961—2007年间,研究区年降水量及温度生长期内降水量均呈下降趋势;黑龙江省全年参考作物蒸散量整体呈增加趋势,吉林省中西部平原区有所减小、东部山区呈增加趋势,辽宁省均呈减小趋势,与1961—1980年的年均值相比,1981—2007年年参考作物蒸散量高于900 mm区域向西推移了约1°;黑龙江省和吉林省绝大部分区域温度生长期内参考作物蒸散量逐年增加,而辽宁省绝大部分区域以小于14 mm·10 a-1的幅度在减少.  相似文献
2.
中国作物秸秆资源评估研究现状   总被引:34,自引:0,他引:34       下载免费PDF全文
本研究分析了中国的农作物秸秆资源量,对实现秸秆资源化具有重要意义。本文首先明确了秸秆的概念指收获作物主产品之后所有大田剩余的副产物及主产品初加工过程产生的副产物,根据不同产出环节将秸秆分为田间秸秆和加工副产物。其次,阐述了秸秆评估的计算方法,给出了各种作物秸秆计算方法。第三,总结了近10年发表文献和作者近期研究对1991年以来中国秸秆资源量评估结果,对1991?1999年中国作物田间秸秆资源量评估的值多数为6.0~6.8亿吨,对加工副产物资源量未见报道;对2000?2007年田间秸秆产量的评估的值多数为5.9~7.3亿吨,作物加工副产物量为0.9~1.1亿吨。第四,分析了对中国秸秆资源量评估值差异的原因等问题,包括以往研究作物秸秆的概念不明确,草谷比取值差异大而不符合当前作物生产现状,以及对于农作物产量的统计指标和产量构成认识不清楚等。第五,报道了本文作者以最近5年测定的各省作物收获指数,采用完全统计方法评估了2006?2007年中国作物秸秆量及其在8个地区的分布,主要结果为秸秆资源总量为7.4亿吨,包括6.5亿吨田间秸秆和0.9亿吨作物加工副产物。  相似文献
3.
中国畜禽粪便污染现状及产沼气潜力   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
张田  卜美东  耿维 《生态学杂志》2012,31(5):1241-1249
为弄清中国畜禽粪便排放总量、污染现状及其资源化潜力,通过查阅文献确定了主要估算参数,并结合畜牧业统计数据估算了2009年中国畜禽粪便排放量及其污染物含量、粪便农用地负荷并对畜禽粪便中氮、磷农用地负荷进行预警分级;同时估算了粪便资源沼气潜力。结果表明:2009年中国畜禽养殖业粪便排放总量为32.64亿t鲜重,其中BOD、COD含量分别为7273.95和8039.96万t。全国单位面积农用地畜禽粪便负荷为26.8t·hm-2,氮、磷素负荷分别为158.42和47.92kg·hm-2。预警分级显示:牧区畜禽养殖业对环境不构成威胁;农区除山西、黑龙江外,其他地区均出现不同程度的氮素污染,而磷素的影响在农区普遍存在。2009年畜禽粪便资源沼气潜力约1200亿m3,其中,大中型畜禽养殖场沼气潜力为240亿m3,约合天然气135亿m3。目前沼气工程已成为环境保护和能源结构调整的一种重要手段。  相似文献
4.
西花蓟马的SCAR分子检测技术   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18       下载免费PDF全文
 西花蓟马Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)是一种世界性入侵害虫,寄主范围广,危害严重,2003年首次在我国发生危害,并有进一步扩散蔓延的趋势。针对蓟马类害虫虫体微小、形态相似,难以准确快速区分的问题,采用特征序列扩增区域(SCAR)标记技术,以西花蓟马及与之同域发生的其他种类蓟马为对象,筛选出1对西花蓟马特异性引物(FOMF/FOMR),其扩增片段大小为320 bp。种特异性检测结果显示,该对引物只对西花蓟马的基因组DNA具有扩增能力,对同域发生的花蓟马F. intonsa (Trybom)、禾花蓟马F. tenuicornis (Uzel)、烟蓟马Thrips tabaci L. 等41种蓟马不具有扩增效果。该对引物不仅对不同虫态的西花蓟马具有扩增能力,而且在西花蓟马发生地的寄主植物组织内亦检测到了其卵的存在。同时,该检测技术灵敏度高,对成虫的最低检出阈值为1/160头。本检测技术在口岸检疫以及花卉、蔬菜和种苗调运中的害虫检测和监测中具有重要意义。  相似文献
5.
基于生态位的山地农村居民点适宜度评价   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18       下载免费PDF全文
秦天天  齐伟  李云强  曲衍波 《生态学报》2012,32(16):5175-5183
为了农村居民点优化布局和公共服务资源优化配置,运用复合生态位对农村居民点适宜性进行评价。根据栖霞市山地特点以及农村居民点用地特征,基于生态位理论,从生态条件、生产条件和生活条件3方面选取相关指标,选取地形位、坡向、水源影响度、地质灾害作为生态条件的评价指标;生产条件选取工商业用地比例、工商业用地可达性、耕地和园地面积、耕地和园地可达性作为评价指标;生活条件选取农村居民点规模、城镇中心可达性和道路通达度作为生活条件评价指标。采用可达性测算、聚类分析、适宜性评价等定量分析和定性分析相结合的方法,确定适宜性等级,并与提取出的农村居民点用地相叠加,将农村居民点分为重点发展型、适度发展型、限制扩建型和优先整治型4种类型,分别占总规模的35.19%、35.10%、20.29%和9.42%。重点发展型地理位置优越,交通便捷,基础设施较完善,建议有序调整内部结构促进集约利用;适度发展型村庄处于起步阶段,受闲散地较多、土地利用方式粗放的限制,建议盘活存量用地,循环利用旧宅基地和闲置宅基地;限制扩建型受地形复杂、农业生产生活条件较差的限制,建议维持现状,引导人口外迁,推动宅基地腾退;优先整治型受地势较高、生态环境脆弱、离水源较远,交通不便,易发灾害限制,建议村庄搬迁。最后结合研究区山地农村居民点特点提出了不同类型居民点相应的调控模式。研究能够揭示农村居民点的现状和适宜性,为当前农村居民点优化布局提供理论基础,同时丰富了生态位理论在不同领域中的应用,对农村居民点优化布局具有一定的指导意义。  相似文献
6.
In recent years, agricultural growth in China has accelerated remarkably, but most of this growth has been driven by increased yield per unit area rather than by expansion of the cultivated area. Looking towards 2030, to meet the demand for grain and to feed a growing population on the available arable land, it is suggested that annual crop production should be increased to around 580 Mt and that yield should increase by at least 2% annually. Crop production will become more difficult with climate change, resource scarcity (e.g. land, water, energy, and nutrients) and environmental degradation (e.g. declining soil quality, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and surface water eutrophication). To pursue the fastest and most practical route to improved yield, the near-term strategy is application and extension of existing agricultural technologies. This would lead to substantial improvement in crop and soil management practices, which are currently suboptimal. Two pivotal components are required if we are to follow new trajectories. First, the disciplines of soil management and agronomy need to be given increased emphasis in research and teaching, as part of a grand food security challenge. Second, continued genetic improvement in crop varieties will be vital. However, our view is that the biggest gains from improved technology will come most immediately from combinations of improved crops and improved agronomical practices. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the historical trend of crop production in China and to examine the main constraints to the further increase of crop productivity. The paper provides a perspective on the challenge faced by science and technology in agriculture which must be met both in terms of increased crop productivity but also in increased resource use efficiency and the protection of environmental quality.  相似文献
7.
Interspecific complementary and competitive interactions between maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No. 2) and faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Linxia Dacaidou) in maize/faba bean intercropping systems were assessed in two field experiments in Gansu province, northwestern China, plus a microplot experiment in one treatment of one of the field experiments in which root system partitions were used to determine interspecific root interactions. Intercropping effects were detected, with land equivalent ratio values of 1.21–1.23 based on total (grain+straw) yield and 1.13–1.34 based on grain yield. When two rows of maize were intercropped with two rows of faba bean, both total yield and grain yield of both crop species were significantly higher than those of sole maize and faba bean on an equivalent area basis. When two rows of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Beijing No. 5) were intercropped with two rows of faba bean, neither total yield nor grain yield of faba bean was higher than of sole faba bean on an equivalent area basis. Interspecific competition between maize and faba bean was relatively weak, with mean relative crowding coefficients of 0.99–1.02 for maize and 1.55–1.59 for faba bean. The microplot experiment in which partitions were placed between root systems showed a significant positive yield effect on maize when the root systems intermingled freely (no partition) or partly (400 mesh nylon net partition) compared with no interspecific root interaction (plastic sheet partition). This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
8.
土壤有机碳分组方法及其在农田生态系统研究中的应用   总被引:15,自引:2,他引:13  
Zhang G  Cao ZP  Hu CJ 《应用生态学报》2011,22(7):1921-1930
农田土壤有机碳成分复杂,活性有机碳对管理措施具有敏感性,而惰性有机碳具有固碳作用.碳分组技术主要包括物理技术、化学技术和生物学技术.物理分组的依据是密度、粒径大小和空间分布,可分离出有机碳的活性组分和惰性组分.化学分组基于土壤有机碳在各种提取剂中的溶解性、水解性和化学反应性从而分离出各种组分:溶解性有机碳是生物可代谢有机碳,包括有机酸、酚类和糖类等;酸水解方法可将有机碳分成活性和惰性成分;利用KMnO4模拟酶氧化可分离出活性碳和非活性碳.利用生物技术可测定出微生物生物量碳和潜在可矿化碳.在不同农田管理措施下,有机碳组分的化学组成和库容会发生不同变化,对土壤有机碳沉积速率产生不同影响.为了探明土壤有机碳组分与碳沉积之间的定性或定量关系,今后应该加强对各种分组方法的标准化研究,探索不同分组方法的整合应用,针对不同农田管理措施,总结出适合的有机碳分组方法或联合分组方法.  相似文献
9.
Yang Y  Yao J  Hu S  Qi Y 《Microbial ecology》2000,39(1):72-79
Abstract The DNA sequence diversities for microbial communities in four soils affected by agricultural chemicals (mainly triadimefon and ammonium bicarbonate and their intermediates) were evaluated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Fourteen random primers were used to amplify RAPDs from four soil microbial community DNAs. The products of 12 primers were separated in gel and generated 155 reliable fragments, of which 134 were polymorphic. The richness, modified richness, Shannon–Weaver index, and a similarity coefficient of DNA were calculated to quantify the diversity to access DNA sequence diversities for four soil microbial communities. The results showed that agricultural chemicals affected soil microbial community diversity at the DNA level. The four soil microbial communities were distinguishable in terms of DNA sequence richness, modified richness, Shannon–Weaver index, and coefficient of DNA similarity. Analysis also showed that the amounts of organic C and microbial biomass C were low in the soil polluted by pesticide (mainly triadimefon and its intermediates), but high in the soil polluted by chemical fertilizer (mainly ammonium bicarbonate and its intermediates). The above results combined may indicate that pesticide pollution caused a decrease in the soil microbial biomass but kept high diversity at DNA level, compared with the control without chemical pollution. In contrast, chemical fertilizer pollution caused an increase in the soil biomass but decrease in the DNA diversity. The RAPD marker technique combined with analysis of soil microbial biomass appears to be an effective approach for studying the diversity of soil microbial communities, although the effects of PCR bias on community composition, such as dominating and rare populations in soils, on the diversity needed to be addressed further.  相似文献
10.
Mx基因稀有密码子和mRNA结构及大肠杆菌表达 优化   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
通过对稀有密码子和mRNA翻译起始区二级结构的分析, 构建了4种重组表达菌株BL21(DE3)/pET-Mx, Rosseta(DE3)/pET-Mx, BL21(DE3)/pGEX-Mx和Rosseta(DE3)/pGEX-Mx, 在大肠杆菌中进行Mx基因的表达, Rosseta(DE3)/pET-Mx和Rosseta(DE3)/pGEX-Mx重组表达菌中都获得了表达, Western blotting检测到了特异的75 kDa表达产物。实验结果证明稀有密码子和mRNA翻译起始区二级结构对Mx 蛋白表达都有影响, 选择适用于稀有密码子表达的菌株Rosetta(DE3)有利于Mx蛋白的表达, 同时翻译起始区二级结构能值较低的表达载体pGEX-Mx获得的表达量明显增高。实验中首次获得了重组表达鸡全长Mx蛋白的大肠杆菌重组菌。  相似文献
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