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1.
NaCl和Na2SO4胁迫下两种刺槐叶肉细胞叶绿体超微结构   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
二倍体刺槐(diploid Robinia pseudoacacia)是我国水土保持林的先锋树种,具有较强的适应性和抗逆性,对改善生态环境、防治水土流失、调节水文状况有重要作用。四倍体刺槐(tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia)是二倍体刺槐的加倍品种,也称多倍体刺槐,由韩国引进,具有速生、耐盐碱、耐干旱和耐烟尘等特点。目前,关于四倍体刺槐的研究,主要集中于栽培技术和繁殖技术方面,而关于四倍体刺槐叶片超微结构与其耐盐性的关系尚缺乏报道。比较了二倍体刺槐和四倍体刺槐在NaCl和Na2SO4胁迫下,叶片叶绿体超微结构的变化特点,一方面可以对二者的耐盐性进行鉴定,同时也可以探讨不同盐分胁迫条件下的作用机制。利用NaCl和Na2SO4进行20d的盐胁迫处理,观察叶绿体超微结构的变化特点,发现:NaCl处理前,二者叶肉细胞叶绿体为梭形、形态饱满、结构完整,NaCl处理后10d时,二倍体刺槐的叶绿体出现变形、膜模糊、基粒片层松散、类囊体解体、脂质球增多等现象,NaCl处理后20d时,叶绿体肿胀、变形,基粒片层断裂,膜系统解体。Na2SO4处理后10d时,二倍体刺槐的叶绿体肿胀,膜模糊,基粒片层松散、类囊体解体,Na2SO4盐胁迫处理后20d时,膜系统全部解体,结构破坏更为严重。总体来说,四倍体刺槐在盐胁迫后叶绿体结构变化不明显,只是在Na2SO4处理20d时,四倍体刺槐的叶绿体出现中空、基粒片层松散、膜边缘模糊现象。在处理前,两种刺槐的叶绿体均紧贴细胞壁,分布于细胞壁边缘。在NaCl处理后10d时,二倍体刺槐的叶绿体仍呈有序排列,紧贴细胞壁,但在处理后20d时,大部分叶绿体脱离细胞壁,呈随机分布。在Na2SO4处理后10d时,二倍体刺槐部分叶绿体脱离细胞壁,位于细胞中央。在Na2SO4处理后20d时,二倍体刺槐叶绿体大部分与细胞壁脱离。四倍体刺槐在两种盐胁迫处理前后叶绿体的排列变化不明显,均分布于细胞壁边缘,紧贴细胞壁。所以在盐胁迫下,耐盐植物叶片的叶绿体表现为结构完整,基粒片层清晰,类囊体结构完整,而不耐盐植物则表现为叶绿体超微结构松散、变形,基粒片层模糊,破坏严重时基粒片层扭曲,叶绿体解体,失去完整结构。  相似文献
2.
噬菌体受体及其鉴定方法   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
目的噬菌体又称细菌病毒,它可以侵入细菌使细菌裂解。噬菌体受体位于宿主细胞表面,能被噬菌体识别并特异性结合。噬菌体受体多种多样,包括细菌膜蛋白、LPS、磷壁酸,也可以是菌毛、鞭毛、荚膜多糖等。噬菌体在微生态平衡、微生物控制等方面具有重要意义,为了更好地研究噬菌体和挖掘噬菌体潜在价值,确定噬菌体受体是十分关键的一步。本研究就细菌噬菌体受体进行分类介绍,并对噬菌体受体鉴定方法进行总结。  相似文献
3.
植物抗坏血酸的合成和代谢以及相关酶基因的调控   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文对植物抗坏血酸的生物合成与代谢途径以及相关酶基因调控的研究进展作介绍。  相似文献
4.
大豆中L34基因的克隆与表达分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的:采用分子手段试图分离与大豆种子低温吸胀相关的基因.方法:利用cDNA-AFLP(cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism)和RACE技术从大豆种子胚轴中克隆到一个编码132 kD的全长核糖体蛋白基因,命名为SOL34.结果:序列分析表明,SOL34和苜蓿(gi | 113205273 |)、茄科植物(gi | 48057670 |)及拟南芥(gi | 2500376 |)中L34蛋白基因的同源性分别为95%、95%和90%.半定量RT-PCR结果表明:大豆种子在4℃下吸胀24h内,胚轴中的SOL34被诱导表达,其中当种子低温吸胀6h,SOL34表达量升高非常明显,18h的表达量最大,24h表达量和18h相似;SOL34在大豆不同部位的表达不同,4叶期的大豆幼苗经过低温处理后,根尖中SOL34的表达比非处理材料增强约5倍,同时比胚轴中高约2倍;但是在叶片中,SOL34表达量并没有受到温度的影响,表达量也很弱,说明SOL34在叶片中是组成型表达.结论:结果分析表明,SOL34可能和大豆根的代谢有关.  相似文献
5.
2011年4~5月,研究了温度对花斑副沙鳅(Parabotia fasciata)早期仔鱼的发育、初次摄食时间、群体摄食率及不可逆点(PNR)的影响。结果发现,花斑副沙鳅仔鱼出膜后2 d已开始摄食;初次群体摄食率最高值出现在卵黄囊耗尽后的1~2 d,花斑副沙鳅仔鱼的摄食强度随温度升高而增大。仔鱼抵达PNR的时间随温度升高而缩短:22℃时,仔鱼的PNR出现在出膜后的8.0~9.0 d;26℃时,PNR为7.0 d;28℃时,PNR为5.5 d;30℃时,PNR为5.0 d。最大初次摄食率至PNR之间为不可逆饥饿期,22℃时为3.5 d,30℃时仅为1.5 d,说明温度越高,仔鱼耐受饥饿的能力越差,越不利于仔鱼的存活。研究认为,温度对花斑副沙鳅仔鱼发育、摄食及不可逆点的影响较大;在苗种培育过程中,应根据温度确定投饵时间,适时投饵对仔鱼的成活显得尤其重要。  相似文献
6.
缺血再灌注对小鼠肠神经丛nNOS 和iNOS表达的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的观察缺血再灌注后小鼠回肠神经型一氧化氮合酶(neuron alnitric oxide synthase,nNOS)和诱导型一氧化氮合酶(induciblenitric oxide synthase,iNOS)的表达,探讨肠缺血再灌注损伤(ischemia-reperfusion injury,IRI)的发生机制。方法采用小鼠肠系膜上动脉缺血再灌注模型,根据不同再灌注时间对小鼠随机分1d组、3d组、5d组、7d组、对照组和假手术组,用SP法检测小鼠回肠nNOS和iNOS的表达情况。结果与对照组和假手术组相比较,nNOS在再灌注1d后开始在肌间神经丛持续高表达(P<0.01);而iNOS在再灌注3d后开始在肌间神经丛持续高表达(P<0.05)。结论nNOS和iNOS在肠缺血再灌注后的表达增强,提示一氧化氮及一氧化氮合酶与肠神经节细胞在缺血再灌注中的损伤有着密切关系。  相似文献
7.
Cerium has been widely used as fertilizer and feed additives in agriculture, but it might finally impair human health by food chain accumulation with its dosage increased in environmental and crops samples. To resolve the conflict, we investigated the effects of Ce(III) on isolated rice mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by examining mitochondrial swelling, transmembrane potential, membrane fluidity with spectroscopy, and observing the mitochondrial ultrastructure, meanwhile, the interaction site(s) and mechanism between Ce(III) and mitochondria were also studied. The results showed that the low level of Ce(III) had little effect on rice MPT, however, the higher level of Ce(III) could induce rice MPT, and the thiol (?SH) groups of membrane proteins (defined as “S” site) matched by Ce(III)-triggered rice MPT pore opening.  相似文献
8.
Liu Y  Yu X  Wang L  Li C  Archacki S  Huang C  Liu JY  Wang Q  Liu M  Tang Z 《Gene》2012,491(2):246-250
X-linked recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is characterized by the defective morphogenesis of teeth, hair, and eccrine sweat glands. It is associated with mutations in the EDA gene. Up to now, more than 100 mutations in the EDA gene have been reported to cause XLHED. The product of EDA gene is a trimeric type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of ligands. In this study, we identified a Chinese family with XLHED. Direct DNA sequencing of the whole coding region of EDA revealed a novel missense mutation, p.Leu354Pro in a patient affected with XLHED. This mutation was not found in either unaffected male individuals of the family or 168 normal controls. The substitution of Leu354 with Pro was found to be located in the TNF-like domain of EDA and may influence the epithelial signaling pathway required for the normal ectodermal development through altering the topology of EDA. Our finding broadens the spectrum of EDA mutations and may help to understand the molecular basis of XLHED and aid genetic counseling.  相似文献
9.
Radik Kha?rullin 《HOMO》2011,62(6):478-486
Most studies of the 2:4 digit ratio (DR) of the human hand have analyzed its possibilities for use as an indicator of the functional, psychological, and, with rare exception, morphological features of the body. Each of the functional flexor segments (each phalanx) contributes to the common variability of the total digital length. The aim of this study was to determine patterns in the relationships between each segmental digit ratio (SDR) and the overall 2:4 DR. We studied the variability of the SDRs in comparison with the general 2:4 DR of 202 young males aged 16–21 years. The length of the functional segments of the digits was measured between the flexor skin furrows on the palmar surface. The change in the SDR means that values can be ranked as follows: proximal SDR (SDR-P) > DR > distal SDR (SDR-D) > medial SDR (SDR-M). Bilateral differences are inherent in the segmental SDR-P. Most quantitative regularities inherent in the total 2:4 DR are also intrinsic to the 2:4 DR of the distal segment of the digit; in particular, this phenomenon is displayed in hands of the ulnar (male) type. Overall, the values of the distal rather than the other functional flexor segments of the second and fourth digits are similar in magnitude to the general 2:4 DR. At the same time, the greatest correlation and hence, the largest contribution to the total variability in the general DR is from the variability of the SDR-P values. Our data demonstrate the importance of various digit segment sizes in determining their overall length and the derivative ratios.  相似文献
10.
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