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A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow bacterium, designated TX0651T, was isolated from an automotive air-conditioning system. Phylogenetically, the strain groups with the members of the genus Flavisolibacter and exhibits high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans Gsoil 636T (97.4%), Flavisolibacter ginsengiterrae Gsoil 492T (96.3%) and Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 643T (96.2%). DNA–DNA relatedness between TX0651T and F. ginsenosidimutans KCTC 22818T and F. ginsengiterrae KCTC 12656T were determined to be less than 40%. The low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness identifies the strain TX0651T as a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The polar lipids were found to be comprised of phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified amino-glycophospholipids, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified amino lipid and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was determined to be 31.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain TX0651T should be classified in a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter, for which the name Flavisolibacter carri sp. nov. (= KACC 19014T = KCTC 52836T = NBRC 111784T) is proposed.  相似文献
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Twelve Acetobacter pasteurianus-related strains with publicly available genomes in GenBank shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.59%), but average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values and multilocus sequence- and genome-based relatedness analyses suggested that they were divided into four different phylogenetic lineages. Relatedness analyses based on multilocus sequences, 1,194 core genes and whole-cell MALDI-TOF profiles supported that strains LMG 1590T and LMG 1591 (previously classified as the type strains of A. pasteurianus subsp. ascendens and paradoxus, respectively) and strain SLV-7T do not belong to A. pasteurianus. Strain SLV-7T, isolated from Korean traditional vinegar, shared low ANI (<91.0%) and in silico DDH (44.2%) values with all other Acetobacter type strains analyzed in this study, indicating that strain SLV-7T represents a new Acetobacter species. The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed these results and therefore a new species named Acetobacter oryzifermentans sp. nov. is proposed with SLV-7T (= KACC 19301T = JCM 31096T) as the type strain. Strains LMG 1590T and LMG 1591 shared high ANI (99.4%) and in silico DDH (96.0%) values between them, but shared low ANI (<92.3%) and in silico DDH (<49.0%) values with other type strains analyzed in this study, indicating that strains LMG 1590T and LMG 1591 should be reclassified into a new single species that should be named Acetobacter ascendens sp. nov., comb. nov., with LMD 51.1T (= LMG 1590T = NCCB 51001T) as its type strain.  相似文献
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Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an inflammatory skin disease caused by hapten-specific immune response. Silkworm droppings are known to exert beneficial effects during the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here, we studied whether topical treatment and oral administration of silkworm dropping extract (SDE) ameliorate trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced ACD. In ACD mice model, SDE treatment significantly suppressed the increase in both ear thickness and serum IgE levels. Furthermore, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were reduced by SDE. In allergic responses, SDE treatment significantly attenuated the production of the Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 in both ear tissue and draining lymph nodes. However, it increased the production of the Th1-mediated cytokine IL-12. Thus, these results showed that SDE attenuated TMA-induced ACD symptoms through regulation of Th1/Th2 immune response. Taken together, we suggest that SDE treatment might be a potential agent in the prevention or therapy of Th2-mediated inflammatory skin diseases such as ACD and atopic dermatitis.

Abbreviations: ACD: allergic contact dermatitis; AD: atopic dermatitis; APC: antigen presenting cells; CCL: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; Dex: dexamethasone; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFN: interferon; Ig: immunoglobulin; IL: interleukin; OVA: ovalbumin; PS: prednisolone; SDE: silkworm dropping extract; Th: T helper; TMA: trimellitic anhydride; TNF: tumor necrosis factor  相似文献

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Black tomatoes have a unique color and higher lycopene content than typical red tomatoes. Here, black tomatoes were investigated how maturation stage and storage temperature affected carotenoid and chlorophyll accumulation. Immature fruits were firmer than mature fruits, but failed to develop their distinctive color and contained less lycopene when stored at 8 °C. Hunter a* values of black tomatoes increased with storage temperature and duration; storage of immature fruits at high temperature favored lycopene accumulation. Chlorophyll levels of black tomatoes declined during storage, but differences between mature and immature tomatoes stored at 12 °C were minimal. β-Carotene levels of black tomatoes increased during early storage, but rapidly declined beginning 13 d post-harvest. The highest lycopene and chlorophyll levels were observed in mature black tomatoes stored at 12 °C for 13 d; these conditions also yielded the best quality fruit. Thus, the unique pigmentation properties of black tomatoes can be precisely controlled by standardizing storage conditions.  相似文献
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Primary hepatocytes (PHs) are considered the ‘gold standard’ in drug screening owing to their ability to express many drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Culturing hepatocytes and maintaining their fate in vitro is a major issue since last decade. The main problem with in vitro hepatocytes culture is that they rapidly lose their hepatic morphology and liver-specific functions in culture. Herein, we isolated rat PHs, and cultured them in monolayers (2-D) and spheroids (3-D). The 2-D-cultured PHs exhibited elongated morphology, whereas the 3-D-cultured PHs exhibited spheroid morphology with gradual diameter decrease until 7 days. After 7 days of in vitro culture, PHs were analyzed for the expression of hepatic (Alb, Tf, and Afp) and apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl2), and co-expression of CYP3A1 and Abumin after 2 and 7 days. Furthermore, in both cultures, PHs were induced with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, Cyp1a-specific inducer) and dexamethasone (Cyp3a-specific inducer) for 48 and 72 h, respectively. The mRNA levels of Cyp1a and Cyp3a were analyzed in induced (3-MC, dexamethasone) and non-induced PHs. After 7 days of in vitro culture, PHs exhibited dramatic downregulation of hepatic marker expression in both cultures. Furthermore, apoptotic marker expression was higher in the 2-D-cultured PHs than 3-D-cultured PHs. The mRNA levels of Cyp1a and Cyp3a indicated higher RNA content in the 2-D-cultured PHs after 48 h of induction. Therefore, we concluded that there was no significant difference between the culture systems, and further studies are required to identify the essential components for in vitro PH culture rather than culture systems.  相似文献
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