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A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow bacterium, designated TX0651T, was isolated from an automotive air-conditioning system. Phylogenetically, the strain groups with the members of the genus Flavisolibacter and exhibits high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans Gsoil 636T (97.4%), Flavisolibacter ginsengiterrae Gsoil 492T (96.3%) and Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 643T (96.2%). DNA–DNA relatedness between TX0651T and F. ginsenosidimutans KCTC 22818T and F. ginsengiterrae KCTC 12656T were determined to be less than 40%. The low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness identifies the strain TX0651T as a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The polar lipids were found to be comprised of phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified amino-glycophospholipids, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified amino lipid and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was determined to be 31.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain TX0651T should be classified in a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter, for which the name Flavisolibacter carri sp. nov. (= KACC 19014T = KCTC 52836T = NBRC 111784T) is proposed.  相似文献
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Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an inflammatory skin disease caused by hapten-specific immune response. Silkworm droppings are known to exert beneficial effects during the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here, we studied whether topical treatment and oral administration of silkworm dropping extract (SDE) ameliorate trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced ACD. In ACD mice model, SDE treatment significantly suppressed the increase in both ear thickness and serum IgE levels. Furthermore, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were reduced by SDE. In allergic responses, SDE treatment significantly attenuated the production of the Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 in both ear tissue and draining lymph nodes. However, it increased the production of the Th1-mediated cytokine IL-12. Thus, these results showed that SDE attenuated TMA-induced ACD symptoms through regulation of Th1/Th2 immune response. Taken together, we suggest that SDE treatment might be a potential agent in the prevention or therapy of Th2-mediated inflammatory skin diseases such as ACD and atopic dermatitis.

Abbreviations: ACD: allergic contact dermatitis; AD: atopic dermatitis; APC: antigen presenting cells; CCL: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; Dex: dexamethasone; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFN: interferon; Ig: immunoglobulin; IL: interleukin; OVA: ovalbumin; PS: prednisolone; SDE: silkworm dropping extract; Th: T helper; TMA: trimellitic anhydride; TNF: tumor necrosis factor  相似文献

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Black tomatoes have a unique color and higher lycopene content than typical red tomatoes. Here, black tomatoes were investigated how maturation stage and storage temperature affected carotenoid and chlorophyll accumulation. Immature fruits were firmer than mature fruits, but failed to develop their distinctive color and contained less lycopene when stored at 8 °C. Hunter a* values of black tomatoes increased with storage temperature and duration; storage of immature fruits at high temperature favored lycopene accumulation. Chlorophyll levels of black tomatoes declined during storage, but differences between mature and immature tomatoes stored at 12 °C were minimal. β-Carotene levels of black tomatoes increased during early storage, but rapidly declined beginning 13 d post-harvest. The highest lycopene and chlorophyll levels were observed in mature black tomatoes stored at 12 °C for 13 d; these conditions also yielded the best quality fruit. Thus, the unique pigmentation properties of black tomatoes can be precisely controlled by standardizing storage conditions.  相似文献
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Primary hepatocytes (PHs) are considered the ‘gold standard’ in drug screening owing to their ability to express many drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Culturing hepatocytes and maintaining their fate in vitro is a major issue since last decade. The main problem with in vitro hepatocytes culture is that they rapidly lose their hepatic morphology and liver-specific functions in culture. Herein, we isolated rat PHs, and cultured them in monolayers (2-D) and spheroids (3-D). The 2-D-cultured PHs exhibited elongated morphology, whereas the 3-D-cultured PHs exhibited spheroid morphology with gradual diameter decrease until 7 days. After 7 days of in vitro culture, PHs were analyzed for the expression of hepatic (Alb, Tf, and Afp) and apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl2), and co-expression of CYP3A1 and Abumin after 2 and 7 days. Furthermore, in both cultures, PHs were induced with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, Cyp1a-specific inducer) and dexamethasone (Cyp3a-specific inducer) for 48 and 72 h, respectively. The mRNA levels of Cyp1a and Cyp3a were analyzed in induced (3-MC, dexamethasone) and non-induced PHs. After 7 days of in vitro culture, PHs exhibited dramatic downregulation of hepatic marker expression in both cultures. Furthermore, apoptotic marker expression was higher in the 2-D-cultured PHs than 3-D-cultured PHs. The mRNA levels of Cyp1a and Cyp3a indicated higher RNA content in the 2-D-cultured PHs after 48 h of induction. Therefore, we concluded that there was no significant difference between the culture systems, and further studies are required to identify the essential components for in vitro PH culture rather than culture systems.  相似文献
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Key message

QTLs and candidate gene markers associated with leaf morphological and color traits were identified in two immortalized populations of Brassica rapa, which will provide genetic information for marker-assisted breeding.

Abstract

Brassica rapa is an important leafy vegetable consumed worldwide and morphology is a key character for its breeding. To enhance genetic control, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for leaf color and plant architecture were identified using two immortalized populations with replications of 2 and 4 years. Overall, 158 and 80 QTLs associated with 23 and 14 traits were detected in the DH and RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 23 common robust-QTLs belonging to 12 traits were detected in common loci over the replications. Through comparative analysis, five crucifer genetic blocks corresponding to morphology trait (R, J&U, F and E) and color trait (F, E) were identified in three major linkage groups (A2, A3 and A7). These might be key conserved genomic regions involved with the respective traits. Through synteny analysis with Arabidopsis, 64 candidate genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell proliferation and elongation were co-localized within QTL intervals. Among them, SCO3, ABI3, FLU, HCF153, HEMB1, CAB3 were mapped within QTLs for leaf color; and CYCD3;1, CYCB2;4, AN3, ULT1 and ANT were co-localized in QTL regions for leaf size. These robust QTLs and their candidate genes provide useful information for further research into leaf architecture with crop breeding.
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When the leaf segments of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were subjected to chilling in the moderate light, zeaxanthin (Zx) formation was faster in a chilling-tolerant Dongjin-byeo (DJ) than in a chilling-sensitive IR841. Although the rate of Zx formation was accelerated by the treatment of 5 mM salicylaldoxime, an inhibitor of Zx epoxidase (ZE), there was almost no changes in DJ. A similar result was observed when leaf segments were treated with 50 mM sodium fluoride, a potent inhibitor of chloroplast phosphatase. The slow Zx epoxidation in IR841 during light-chilling was confirmed in leaf segments treated with 10 mM dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). However, the differences between the two cultivars were not observed at 25oC. These results suggest that compared with IR841 the higher rate of Zx formation in DJ is not due to the higher VDE activity in DJ but is due to more rapid down-regulation of ZE in DJ, possibly by its phosphorylation. Compared with DJ, IR841 accumulated more superoxide with PSI inactivation during light-chilling, which eliminates the possibility of increased ZE down-regulation in DJ leaves by photo-oxidation. In vitro study with alkaline phosphatase supports the idea of down-regulation of ZE by phosphorylation under light-chilling condition. We propose that this reversible down-regulation of Zx epoxidation possibly by the phosphorylation of ZE is an important regulation mechanism of violaxanthin cycle that confers chilling tolerance of a rice cultivar under chilling stress in the light with moderate intensities.  相似文献
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