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1.
The sequences coding for DNA[cytosine-N4]methyltransferases MvaI (from Micrococcus varians RFL19) and Cfr9I (from Citrobacter freundii RFL9) have been determined. The predicted methylases are proteins of 454 and 300 amino acids, respectively. Primary structure comparison of M.Cfr9I and another m4C-forming methylase, M.Pvu II, revealed extended regions of homology. The sequence comparison of the three DNA[cytosine-N4]-methylases using originally developed software revealed two conserved patterns, DPF-GSGT and TSPPY, which were found similar also to those of adenine and DNA[cytosine-C5]-methylases. These data provided a basis for global alignment and classification of DNA-methylase sequences. Structural considerations led us to suggest that the first region could be the binding site of AdoMet, while the second is thought to be directly involved in the modification of the exocyclic amino group.  相似文献
2.
The complete nucleotide sequence (321 bp) of smr (staphylococcal multidrug resistance), a gene coding for efflux-mediated multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, was determined by using two different plasmids as DNA templates. The smr gene product (identical to products of ebr and qacC/D genes) was shown to be homologous to a new family of small membrane proteins found in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Proteus vulgaris. The smr gene was subcloned and expressed in S. aureus and E. coli and its ability to confer the multidrug resistant phenotype was demonstrated for two different lipophilic cation classes: phosphonium derivatives and quarternary amines. Expression of smr gene leads to the efflux of tetraphenylphosphonium and to a net decrease in the uptake of lipophilic cations. The deduced polypeptide sequence (107 amino acid residues, 11,665 kDa) has 46% hydrophobic residues (Phe, Ile, Leu, and Val) and 20% hydroxylic residues (Ser and Thr). Four transmembrane segments are predicted for smr gene product. Of the charged amino acid residues, only Glu 13 is located in a transmembrane segment. This Glu 13 is conserved in all members of the family of small membrane proteins. We propose a mechanism whereby exchange of protons at the Glu 13 is a key in the efflux of the lipophilic cation. This mechanism includes the idea that protons are transported to the Glu 13 via an appropriate chain of hydroxylic residues in the transmembrane segments of Smr.  相似文献
3.
4.
Genetic recombination can be important evolutionarily in speeding the adaptation of organisms to new environments and in purging deleterious mutations. Here, we describe polymerase chain reaction (PCR), hybridization and DNA sequence-based evidence of six such exchanges between two strains of Helicobacter pylori during natural mixed infection of a patient in Lithuania. One parent strain contained the 37 kb long, virulence-associated cag pathogenicity island (PAI), and the other strain lacked this PAI. Most H. pylori from the patient had descended from the cag + parent, but had become cag during infection. This had resulted from transfer of DNA containing the 'empty site' allele from the cag strain and homologous recombination, not from excision of the cag PAI without DNA transfer. Other cases of recombination involved genes for an outer membrane protein ( omp 5 and omp 29; also called HP0227 and HP1342) and a putative phosphoenolpyruvate synthase ( ppsA  ; HP0121). Replacement of a short patch of DNA sequence (36–124 bp) was also seen. As the chance of forming any given recombinant is small, the abundance of recombinants in this patient suggests selection for particular recombinant genotypes during years of chronic infection. We suggest that genetic exchange among unrelated H. pylori strains, as documented here, is important because of the diversity of this gastric pathogen and its human hosts. Certain H. pylori recombinants may grow better in a given host than either parent. The vigour of growth, in turn, could impact on the severity of disease that infection can elicit.  相似文献
5.
This paper reports on the isolation of a novel class of plant serine/threonine protein kinase genes, MsK-1 , MsK-2 and MsK-3 . They belong to the superfamily of cdc2 -like genes, but show highest identity to the Drosophila shaggy and rat GSK-3 proteins (66–70%). All of these kinases share a highly conserved catalytic protein kinase domain. Different amino-terminal extensions distinguish the different proteins. The different plant kinases do not originate from differential processing of the same gene as is found for shaggy , but are encoded by different members of a gene family. Similarly to the shaggy kinases, the plant kinases show different organ-specific and stage-specific developmental expression patterns. Since the shaggy kinases play an important role in intercellular communication in Drosophila development, the MsK kinases are expected to perform a similar function in plants.  相似文献
6.
The Eco57I restriction endonuclease and methylase were purified to homogeneity from the E.coli RR1 strain carrying the eco57IRM genes on a recombinant plasmid. The molecular weight of the denaturated methylase is 63 kDa. The restriction endonuclease exists in a monomeric form with an apparent molecular weight of 104-108 kDa. R.Eco57I also possesses methylase activity. The methylation activities of both enzymes modify the outer A residue in the target sequence 5'CTGAAG yielding N6-methyladenine. M.Eco57I modifies both strands of the substrate while R.Eco57I modifies only one. Only the methylase enzyme is stimulated by Ca2+. The restriction endonuclease shows an absolute requirement for Mg2+ and is stimulated by AdoMet. ATP has no influence on either activity of the enzymes. The subunit structure and enzymatic properties of the Eco57I enzymes distinguish them from all other restriction-modification enzymes that have been described previously. Therefore, RM.Eco57I may be regarded as a representative of a novel class of restriction-modification systems, and we propose to classify it as type IV.  相似文献
7.
Graphite (GE) or printed graphite electrode (PGE) based biosensors containing recombinant fungal laccase Polyporus pinsitus (rPpL), and Myceliophthora thermophila (rMtL) were developed. The enzymes were immobilized using bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. At pH 5.5 and -0.1 V, the calibration graphs of GE based biosensors were hyperbolic if pyrocatechol was used. The concentration of substrate that results in 50% of steady-state response (EC(50)) was 0.7 mM and sensitivity (S) was 3.8 mA/M. The sensitivity increased up to 4 A/M if larger amount of rPpL was used. The sensitivity of biosensors changed little during 9 days of exploitation, but decreased at longer time. The PGE based biosensors were mounted into the flow-through cell and calibrated under kinetic regime. EC(50) of the biosensors containing rPpL varied from 0.6 to 4.0 mM and sensitivity varied from 0.11 to 1.9 mA/M. The response of biosensor containing thermostable laccase rMtL was less, but response saturated at larger pyrocatechol concentration. The sensitivity changed little during 6 days. Both type of biosensors responded also to 1-naphthol, o-phenylenediamine, guaiacol, o-anizidine, benzidine. The experiments demonstrate recombinant laccases application to biosensor engineering and their use to phenol and related compound determination under steady-state and flow-through regimes.  相似文献
8.
M.Smal is an N4-methylcytosine specific DNA-methylase.   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
An enzymatic activity rendering DNA immune to the action of the Smal restriction endonuclease in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine has been detected in Serratia marcescens Sb. This methylase, M.Smal, modifies the second cytosine residue of the substrate sequence CCCGGG yielding N4-methylcytosine.  相似文献
9.
Many DNA modification and repair enzymes require access to DNA bases and therefore flip nucleotides. Restriction endonucleases (REases) hydrolyze the phosphodiester backbone within or in the vicinity of the target recognition site and do not require base extrusion for the sequence readout and catalysis. Therefore, the observation of extrahelical nucleotides in a co-crystal of REase Ecl18kI with the cognate sequence, CCNGG, was unexpected. It turned out that Ecl18kI reads directly only the CCGG sequence and skips the unspecified N nucleotides, flipping them out from the helix. Sequence and structure conservation predict nucleotide flipping also for the complexes of PspGI and EcoRII with their target DNAs (/CCWGG), but data in solution are limited and indirect. Here, we demonstrate that Ecl18kI, the C-terminal domain of EcoRII (EcoRII-C) and PspGI enhance the fluorescence of 2-aminopurines (2-AP) placed at the centers of their recognition sequences. The fluorescence increase is largest for PspGI, intermediate for EcoRII-C and smallest for Ecl18kI, probably reflecting the differences in the hydrophobicity of the binding pockets within the protein. Omitting divalent metal cations and mutation of the binding pocket tryptophan to alanine strongly increase the 2-AP signal in the Ecl18kI–DNA complex. Together, our data provide the first direct evidence that Ecl18kI, EcoRII-C and PspGI flip nucleotides in solution.  相似文献
10.
Patterns in species richness and endemism of European freshwater fish   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Aim  To analyse the patterns in species richness and endemism of the native European riverine fish fauna, in the light of the Messinian salinity crisis and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM).
Location  European continent.
Methods  After gathering native fish faunistic lists of 406 hydrographical networks, we defined large biogeographical regions with homogenous fish fauna, based on a hierarchical cluster analysis. Then we analysed and compared the patterns in species richness and endemism among these regions, as well as species–area relationships.
Results  Among the 233 native species present in the data set, the Cyprinidae family was strongly dominant (> 50% of the total number of species). Seven biogeographical regions were defined: Western Peri-Mediterranea, Central Peri-Mediterranea, Eastern Peri-Mediterranea, Ponto-Caspian Europe, Northern Europe, Central Europe and Western Europe. The highest regional species richness was observed for Central Peri-Mediterranea and Ponto-Caspian Europe. The highest endemic richness was found in Central Peri-Mediterranea. Species–area relationships were characterized by high slope values for Peri-Mediterranean Europe and low values for Central and Western Europe.
Main conclusions  The results were in agreement with the 'Lago Mare' hypothesis explaining the specificity of Peri-Mediterranean fish fauna, as well as with the history of recolonization of Central and Western Europe from Ponto-Caspian Europe following the LGM. The results also agreed with the mechanisms of speciation and extinction influencing fish diversity in hydrographical networks. We advise the use of the seven biogeographical regions for further studies, and suggest considering Peri-Mediterranean Europe and Ponto-Caspian Europe as 'biodiversity hotspots' for European riverine fish.  相似文献
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